Grayling – a predatory fish. Has a body of elongated shape with a greenish or bluish-silver hues. Black spots on the back. Silver spots on flanks and abdomen, which are cast in purple, top fin large size colorful-bright colors on the breast and belly fins red or yellow, the caudal and anal fins are purple. Grayling has a small head, adipose fin and upper mouth. Grayling is a close relative of salmon and white fish. Habitat – only the Northern hemisphere. He lives in clean cold-water rivers and lakes, prefers waters with a rocky and pebbly bottom. Forms a clean lake, river and lake-river forms. In Russia, where all known species and subspecies of the family Harisovich the most common, found in the vast territory that stretches from East to West. Grayling lives not only in several European regions, adjacent to the South, and it is not in some basins of the plain between the rivers Ob and Yenisei.
The distinguishing feature of the grayling is the large fin on the back, which is similar to flag and decorated with interesting spots or stripes. The pattern on the fin in different species (subspecies) of the population has its own distinctive features. On the back there is a small adipose fin, demonstrates his noble origin and kinship with the family of salmonids.
Grayling can reach 2.2 — 3.0 kg, but catches have come across weighing no more than kg. Feeds on grayling for almost everyone. The basis of its food are benthic organisms – mollusks, crustaceans, grammarcy, larvae and other forms of insects that develop in water (stoneflies, mayflies, caddisflies), there are also insects that accidentally fall into the water – gnats, grasshoppers, flys and cicadas. In the case of the grayling feed on the eggs of other fish. Large fish can eat the fry, and sometimes to attack small voles, shrews.
Grayling overwinter in deep holes in the lower reaches of rivers in spring and ascend to the upper reaches, sometimes, when there came down the ice. When the leash they are sent to the tributaries for reproduction. A similar movement can be observed in grayling from lake and river populations. The difference lies in the fact that the lake fish has the ability to go into the rivers and streams that are adjacent to their reservoir, and to move downstream rivers that flow into it. Along with Mature individuals who have reached 3 -5 years, migration is involved and the youth.
Spawning begins in late may early June, when water temperature reaches 10 degrees, and occurs at a depth of 30 – 60 cm on sandy-pebbly areas with moderately fast flow. Lake grayling spawn in coastal areas with shallow waters.
In river populations the foraging ends around October. And with the onset of cold weather grayling migrate to their wintering grounds.
At the time of feeding grayling is located along the river, guided by the basis of age. On the lower parts of the river is a small grayling, and the high portions are larger.