The rootstocks of Apple trees
Wood and fruit breed, mostly held in the form of grafted plants.
For this purpose, seedlings of hardy local varieties or wild fruit grafted kidney or escape the cultural variety which you want to propagate.
Such a seedling is called a rootstock, and has evolved from vaccinations escape — Scion.
«Rootstock is the Foundation of the fruit tree,» wrote the great transformer of nature Michurin.
From the rootstock depend on the basic qualities of grafted trees: size, durability, frost resistance, time of entry into the stage of fruiting productivity.
Practice showed that for cultivation of Apple trees is necessary to take seeds of the Chinese tree, forest tree, anthrax, Antonovka, Anise and some other cultural cold-resistant varieties.
The Chinese or the so-called kivalina Apple is one of the best rootstocks in areas of Central and Volga region.
In the wild it is not found and is grown in small quantities in gardens, nurseries.
Small Apple fruits, the Chinese must not falling a Cup that distinguishes them from the fruits of large-fruited forms of anthrax and from hybrids of Chinese women with the Siberian Apple-tree.
Of plants grown from seeds of Apple Chinese, has the highest resistance to frost.
Chinese seeds give good germination and the seedlings vary in quality extensive root system, grow well.
Most varieties of cultivated Apple trees grow well with Chinese in the future have excessive growth and durability, and high yield.
Wild Apple — the most common rootstock in the southern and Central parts of the country.
In the wild forest tree is found large enough arrays in the forests of the Kursk and Voronezh regions, in the North Caucasus, southern Kazakhstan, in the Crimea and Ukraine.
Seedlings of forest tree commonly have a pronounced tap root which branches bad, so they must be thinned.
Cultivated varieties of Apple trees grow well with wild Apple-tree, and further have high growth. Anis of the cultural varieties of apples yields the most frost-resistant rootstocks.
Trees grown on rootstocks from seedlings of APIs, have a strong growth. Siberian berry Apple-tree as rootstock widespread in the Northern and Eastern parts of Siberia, the far East, the Urals.
In the wild this tree grows in Siberia, in the Urals and in Transbaikalia; the fruit is very small: from 7 to 12 mm in diameter.
Seeds Siberian Crabapple give early sprouts, seedlings formed well-developed root system with a large number of fibrous roots than grow them without picks.
The anthrax seedlings grow very slowly and vaccinations are suitable only in the second year of life.
The root system of anthrax in adult plants located in the upper soil horizons, allowing you to grow seedlings, vaccinated for anthrax in areas with fairly close occurrence of subsoil waters.
However, a shallow distribution in the soil the roots of trees grafted on anthrax, sometimes leads to unpleasant plant death in the snowless winter and summer fruiting, to the uprooting of trees by wind.
The disadvantages of the Siberian Apple trees as rootstock are also bad fusion it with some Central Russian varieties, short duration and low growing plants. Slaboroslyh rootstocks of Apple.
For growing dwarf and semi-dwarf forms of Apple trees on the rootstock used paradisco called Raikou or Paradise Apple.
The root system Paradiski lies and shallow; trees that are grafted on it, is short-lived, are remarkable in dwarf growth and the fruition on the 3-4th year after vaccination.
Paradise not propagated by seed, layering, stem and root cuttings.
Semi-dwarf Apple allow to get also of such stock as Dusen. Dusen—dwarf rootstock, the roots lie in the soil deeper than Paradiski.
Varieties grafted on ducene, begin to bear fruit only in the 4-5th year. Propagated Dusen as Paradise, layering and cuttings, and seeds. Trees grafted on ducene, live 20-30 years.