The formation of the vine in the first four years
In the first four years after planting the main objective is the formation of a cluster of grapes and the creation of favorable conditions for the growth and development of aerial part of seedlings.
During this period, vines have become powerful plants ready for fruiting.
To achieve its objectives by cutting and giving the desired shape. For Central Russia the best form is «chetyrehrjadnye vertical fan».
The formation of the vine in the first year
In the first year after planting is essential to the autumn to grow on each plant two vines with a length of 1.5-2m, with ripe internodes. This can be achieved if you make timely fertilizer and water.
We should not forget about the weeding, loosening the soil and protect the vines from diseases and pests.
It is also important to keep the leaves healthy, or to grow quality vines will not work. To protect the young shoots from damage, it is recommended to tie up to stakes. Tie the seedlings are not tight and as you grew up, they tie up the rope.
On each hive, leave the three best escape, one spare and two main. All the other shoots at emergence were removed and the shoots pinch out over 3 of the sheet.
In the second week of August are pinched in the vine, cut the ends of vigorous shoots. An underdeveloped bushes this operation is not carried out.
During the whole vegetation period spend eight irrigation, in the Northern region six. Exceptions are allowed in the dry season, the plants were not oppressed by drought. The last watering is recommended until the fifth of August.
Also for the entire period of three spend fertilizing fertilizers. First you need to improve the growth of young plants. Used liquid manure (1:3) or chicken manure (1:10), after dilution the solution should stand for 12 hours. Fertilizers are applied in may directly into the ground.
If there is no possibility to use organic fertilizer, you can resort to the help of mineral salts. A ten litre bucket dissolve 20g of 34% ammonium nitrate, 10g of 60% potassium chloride and 40 g of 15% superphosphate. The same solution used in June for the second feeding.
The third feeding is necessary for good aging and slowing of active growth of the vine. It is carried out after the 20th of July. In a bucket of water add 10 g of sodium chloride and 40g of superphosphate.
In areas with early autumn frosts, in advance, to reduce the temperature of the well to Spud the base of young vines up to the second normal development of the eye inclusive. Hilling is necessary and in subsequent years.
With the onset of frost carry out pruning vines, with removed the shoots, tendrils, leaves and a spare vine. Left main vines are cut at a height of 1m.
This was followed by abundant watering in the winter, and the vines begin to prepare for the winter. To do this, they carefully tilted to the ground in the prepared grooves with a depth of bayonet spade and covered for the winter.
We recommend you to read: grape Varieties for Siberia
The second year of the formation of the vine
In the second half of April, depending on temperature 2 admission reveals grape vines. 1-2 days are doing some spring pruning, leaving two developed eye.
Corner, the the lower the eyes are not considered, they are typically weak and do not give strong shoots. If there is concern of damage by frosts, you can leave 4 points.
After the start of shoot growth, unnecessary break off. The tasks of the second year of the formation of the vine, grow on every Bush 4 well developed vines.
Care is the same as in the first year. The only difference is the amount of fertilizer. During this period after planting, the root system has grown strong, so fertilizing will increase in two times. The number of feeding remains the same. In the fall when pruning each vine is reduced to 1.5 m.
The third year of the formation of the vine
Spring first need to install a trellis for trellising vines. Then open the vines and conduct a spring pruning. Each vine is pruned to 60-80 cm
Upstairs in each cropped vines should stay on 2 points, the lower must be on the outside of the vine.
In the future it would be necessary for the formation of substitution bitch. The rest are left below the two pull out.
The tasks of the third year of growing grapes to fall to 8 well-developed shoots. The care remains the same as last year.
Don’t forget all shoots must be removed. At the autumn pruning each vine is trimmed to 1.2 m, and takes refuge in the winter.
The fourth year of growing grapes
Spring is a time of formation on each sleeve, «fruit link». On the upper escape leave 6 or more points, and the bottom 2 is normally developed eye.
In the fourth spring form further the right amount of sleeve of the strongest vines at the root section. Unnecessary may be removed or pruned if the next year I want to increase the number of sleeves.
After spring pruning of the formation of the vine is complete. This season starts fruiting.