Moth control measures
Can little, nothing outwardly remarkable butterfly to destroy up to 60% of the harvest of fruit trees?
Capable of if we are talking about the moth. Or rather, not she herself, and her caterpillar.
Its simple the name of the butterfly was due to «eating» caterpillars of the fruit of these trees: Apple, quince, pear, apricot, plum, peach and others.
The moth belongs to the group of insects with the so-called «full circle conversion», when the life cycle of individuals (generation) includes four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, adult.
The larva of the Codling moth (caterpillar) a wormlike shape, light yellow or pink color with a dark head. Older the caterpillar, the brighter the coloring.
The body of the butterfly is gray, the wings are inconspicuous on the back – dark-gray slightly wavy stripes on front — small reddish spots.
The butterfly emerges in June, after flowering, until the formation of the ovaries. During the day sitting on branches or under leaves, so you can see it is not easy.
Activity — morning and evening (at this time, the butterfly lays eggs), you notice her uneven flashes flight.
The butterfly itself feeds on nectar and harm neither the plants nor the fruits it brings. With the hard «work» — daily laying eggs, up to 200 pieces at 4-6 weeks of life.
Oviposition holds on the upper (smooth) surface of leaves or on fruits. «Aging» of the eggs takes about a week. Caterpillars hatched from eggs laid on leaves, first feed on their flesh, and then crawl to the fruit.
Appearing» directly on the skin of the fruit, the larvae immediately penetrate into the flesh, paving the road (the wormhole) to a seed chamber where they do their «dirty work» — eat the seeds.
The fruit, the larvae fill their waste – slurry from the small dark balls. One fruit can feed on several caterpillars and a caterpillar «to cope» with a few fruits.
Damaged fruit ripens prematurely and fall off. «Live» caterpillar about a month, gradually increasing and reaching up to 1.8 mm in length. In temperate climates, the butterfly gives one generation.
Grown caterpillar leaves for the winter, reliable winter weaves a cocoon in which it sleeps until spring. The caterpillars spend winter in the ground, under the bark of trees, in crevices Chatal (boost) or in the storage container of fruit.
The optimal temperature for caterpillars of the Codling moth + 23 – 25C. In the southern latitudes and hot dry summers in the Central parts of the country the insect has time to give two and sometimes three generations per year.
Under favorable temperature conditions the Mature caterpillar spins a summer cocoon, pupates, the butterfly emerges the second generation, which again lay eggs and repeat all stages of development of insect pest.
In the pest control using mechanical, chemical and biological methods. It is advisable to «strike» during the most vulnerable insects: the emergence of the caterpillars from the eggs and search for older tracks designated for wintering or pupation.
The mechanical method consists of gathering volunteers, setting hunting zones and seasonal cleaning of the trunks of trees and storage containers of the fruit.
The ground should be collected daily and in the evening, until morning the caterpillar time to leave the fallen «house» and crawl the tree to find another.
Unusable fruit buried in the earth on depth not less than half a meter, not to give the caterpillars a chance to crawl on the surface. Hunting belt made from burlap or heavy paper.
The burlap is folded in two or three layers in the form of strips with a width of about 20 cm and tie a rubber band or twine (top or bottom) to the tree trunk. Put the belt in early June, visiting weekly.
In spring and autumn the trunks of the trees clean blunt scrapers, removing the old bark and removing the overwintering pupae of the Codling moth. Containers and backup treated with boiling water.
The use of insecticides against the moth – the essence of chemical method, the most effective in combating the pest. Use such chemicals as Malathion (10%), remicourt (25%), pozzolan (0.2%), trichlorfon (0.2 percent).
In the areas of development of the Codling moth in one generation between the two insecticide treatments (spraying) at intervals of 15 days, with the first one in the period of intensive summer butterflies, about a week or two after flowering, the last – not later than one month before harvest.
When two or more generations of insects per year, and on winter varieties of trees, spend the third spraying.
Begin spraying from the top of the crown, gradually sinking down. Raspryskivanii camera kept at a distance of two feet from the branches, using a nozzle for fine spraying.
While close to the treated wood plants to harvest the fruit of which is less than 30 days, cover them with foil.
Along with the chemicals for spraying, you can use extracts of tomato leaf and sage, are less harmful to humans and animals. The pollination they carry out two weeks before harvest.
In the biological method of combating the pest are birds, predatory insects and insect parasites. The task of man is to attract to the garden of the defenders and adjust their «work».
Help Trichogramma (an insect parasite) develops in the eggs of the Codling moth and leads to the death of caterpillars. Ground beetles — large, shiny, bluish – black beetles live on the soil surface and feed on caterpillars.