Formation of young trees
In early spring, before the buds swell, it is necessary to carry out pruning of planted trees, forming of crowns, selection of the main (skeletal) branches of the tree.
Trees: select 3-4 of the strongest escape, departing at a more obtuse angle from the trunk at a sufficient (8-15 cm) distance from each other and located around the circumference of the trunk.
All the other shoots are cut leaving 10-15 cm in length. The first time they are used for thickening of the trunk, and later transformed into fruit branches.
Vertical escape continue the first crop in the garden should be reduced by 35-40cm above the base of the last skeletal bitch.
Simultaneously shorten and main boughs for the regulation of force development and the challenge they have lateral branching.
The lower and weak branches are pruned little or not at all pruned, and the upper and more strong shoots shortened is stronger.
After shortening the ends of clipped shoots (except for escape continuation) must be in the same horizontal plane.
In cultivars prone to apical growth (e.g., Cinnamon, Chinese gold, etc.) and the weak development of the lateral branches, shoots shortened more than varieties form a good branching almost throughout the escape (SIC, Pepin Lithuanian, Peshin saffron, etc.).
When you select the main skeletal branches can be occasions when, at close distance there will be two equally strong and well-located in space flight.
In this case, it is possible for another year to keep both of these escape to when pruning next year to choose one of them, the best located.
In subsequent years, to escape continue in the same way every year lay from 1 to 3 main skeletal branches, at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, depending on the tree vigor of the escape continuation of the major branches.
In this formation for 4-5 years, bring all the bitches that create the basic skeleton of the crown of 6-8 branches.
2-3 years after laying the last bitch escape continue to cut evenly. Too early to cut the escape continuation is not necessary, as there are cases when the upper main branch takes a vertical position and replaces the Explorer.
The varieties with a pyramidal growth escape not continue the cut and delay in the development of a strong periodic (1-2 years) trimming.
During the summer, starting in June, you should thoroughly review the crown, and if evidence failure or severe delay in the shoot growth to continue, it must be replaced in the near side escape and tie up the last vertical to the pin.
You also need to monitor competitors escape continue promptly removing them to avoid loosening of the conductor and formation of forks.
The formation and pinching of the branches of the second order on the main skeletal branches are made the same way as skeletal branches on
The ramifications of that are usually not chosen as the main skeletal branches of the second order, converted using strong pruning shoots thickening.
In the future, with strong pruning shoots thickening. In the future, they form fruiting twigs.
The preservation of the shoots thickening is especially important in the lower parts of the branches, at their base.
As the main skeletal branches of secondary order, choose the shoots grown from lateral buds.
Shoots developing from the upper and lower buds, growing deep into the crown and choke it, cut evenly or cut turn into fruit-bearing branches.
In the formation of branches on the main skeletal branches escape continue need to trim weaker than the side shoots.