(biography, photos, videos) Yegor Gaidar
Yegor Gaidar: biography
Yegor Gaidar is a famous politician «dashing» 90-ies, when the country experienced all the hardships of the transition from socialism to capitalism. A key figure in the political arena of Russia, author of «shock therapy» and the Chapter «the reformist government», the historical time for the country was in the highest echelons of power and was responsible for the economic policy of the Russian Federation. The attitude of the reformer in humans is quite controversial – even many years after the death of economist to his reform remember with both positive and negative sides. Some believe that «Gaidar» reforms have saved Russians from starvation and civil war, while others believe that the work of the economist-reformer led to the decline in living standards and deliberate destruction of the Russian economy.
Gaidar Yegor Gaidar was born March 19, 1956 in Moscow in the family of a Navy sailor and journalist Timur Gaidar and historian of Ariadne, Begovoy. He was the grandson of famous Soviet writers Pavel Bazhov and Arkady Gaidar. The first interest in the economy of the future policy reformer awoke in early childhood, when he and his parents lived in Cuba and in Yugoslavia, where he got acquainted with the economic writings of Marx and Engels, prohibited at that time in the USSR. He showed particular interest in the history and philosophy, independently studied the works of the classics of Marxism, which became the Foundation for his future career.
Graduation classes of schools, Gaidar graduated in Moscow. He became the gold medalist of the mathematical school № 152, after which he entered the economic faculty of Moscow state University. University, who also graduated with honors. Deciding to continue to improve their knowledge, the economist continued her studies in graduate school, and in 1980 defended a scientific thesis and became a candidate of economic Sciences. In 1990, Yegor has prepared and has defended a doctoral thesis.
Career of Yegor Gaidar began in the all-Union research Institute, where a young economist engaged in analysis of economic reform of socialist countries. Even then, the future reformer realized that the Soviet economy is in a serious condition and if not to launch market mechanisms, it will enter a phase of self-destruction. For 6 years he transferred to the Institute of Economics and forecasting, where he held the position of leading researcher.
The next three years, Gaidar dedicated journalism – he became Deputy editor of the magazine «Communist», and later-head of the economic Department in the newspaper «Pravda». At that time, the economist engaged in promoting the idea of reducing the state presence in the economy, lower budget does not benefit the public sphere and start carrying out gradual reforms in the Soviet system. About the same period, Gaidar announced its economic program of financial stabilization of the economy.
But projects Gaidar at the time did not materialize because they did not fit into the framework of existing realities. However, his which has strengthened its reputation as a professional economist and an experienced debater had not allowed him to stay in the shadow during the collapse of the Soviet Union. Thanks to his acquaintances in political circles and the coordinated work of the team, Gaidar became the Vice-Premier of the RSFSR, and later the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation.
In the politics of Yegor Gaidar fell in the period when it ceased to operate laws, to execute the instructions to operate the power structures of the state, and the Soviet system of control over the foreign trade activity became dormant. Then the politician has created a team of economists and was headed by the «reformist government», which actively started to create a new economy.
For the first year at the helm of the Russian government, he was able to put into effect a plan of economic reforms aimed at the start of market mechanisms, the elimination of deficit, changes in currency and tax systems and the establishment of the privatization program. In the same period he became the founder and Chairman of the economic policy Institute, being the biggest authority in the field of socio-economic transformation of society.
Between 1991 and 1994, Gaidar held high positions of power, from the Minister of Finance of the Russian Federation, ending with the Prime Minister. Then, under his leadership, the country began the liberalization of market prices, economic reforms, the transformation of the tax system, the introduction of free market trade, privatization and restructuring of Tek.
In 1994, amid expressions of disagreement with the then-current Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Gaidar was forced to resign. Despite this he continued his political, scientific and economic activities, taking an active part in the party building of the state Duma of the first convocation. From 1994 to 2001 he was head of the party «Democratic choice of Russia» and continued to promote a reform movement in the history of new Russia.
Evaluation of the development of the economy of the new Russia, Yegor Gaidar, has both positive and negative. Supporters of the reformist believe that the achievement of Gaidar invaluable for the country, as he took upon himself the entire responsibility for the Russian economy in crisis conditions and able to resist famine and civil war.
His work is highly appreciated by many economists-reformers all over the world who believe that Gaidar’s team had all the more difficult in maintaining the country’s economy, since Russia had a strong opposition and resistance to reform. While the Russian government recognise that the tax, budgetary, customs codes of the country from beginning to end written by Gaidar and his team.
Opponents of Yegor Gaidar, conversely, believe that a politician-reformer with his «shock therapy» caused the decline in the standard of living in the country because of what happened the stratification of society. He is accused of unfair privatization, devaluation of deposits of the USSR and the collapse of the industry of the country.
Personal life of Yegor Gaidar’s «two-part». First time he married in his student years, Irina Smirnova, who was his childhood friend. She bore him two children – Peter and Mary. After divorce the spouses equally «divided» children – Maria Gaidar, who now is the Deputy Chairman of Odessa regional state administration in Ukraine, remained with her mother, and Peter Gaidar were the parents of the father that in him doted.
Find family happiness politician-reformer decided the second time he married the daughter of the famous writer Maria Strugatsky, with whom he lived until the end of his days. The second wife Gaidar was the son from the first marriage Ivan Strugatsky, and married with Yegor Timurovich she bore her husband another son of Paul.
In the life of a politician-reformer was fond of chess, reading, and writing. He was the author of a bibliography of publications about the economy, themes which are contained in the Preface of his 15-volume works. His children say that dad loved to fish and collect mushrooms, and also was a connoisseur of whiskey, which had experienced an indescribable passion.
December 16, 2009 Yegor Gaidar died at the age of 53 years. Cause of death the policy was a heart attack, in which happened the separation of the clot. Until the last days of his life, the economist participated in the development of advanced technologies in the country and worked on his scientific work.
Farewell to the Gaidar took place in the capital of the Central clinical hospital on December 19. It is reported that to say goodbye to a leading economist of the country, it’s about 10 thousand people, among which were the famous faces political arena Boris Nemtsov, Anatoly Chubais, the Deputy Prime Minister, German Gref, Elvira Nabiullina, Sergei Stepashin.
Yegor Gaidar was buried after cremation in the Novodevichy cemetery in a public setting. Posthumously policy-reformer, a monument was unveiled in the premises of the Higher school of Economics, and the memory of Gaidar immortalized in the history of Russia by decree of Russian President Vladimir Putin.