Yaroslav The Wise
(biography, photos, videos) Yaroslav Mudriy
Yaroslav I the Wise: biography
One of the most respected of ancient princes – Prince Yaroslav the Wise, son of Vladimir the great, Baptist. Nickname Wise he got for the love of education and the creation of the first known in Russia code of laws, later called the «Russian truth». And he is the father, uncle and grandfather of many European rulers. In baptism Yaroslav received the name of George (or Yuri). The Russian Orthodox Church venerates him as blessed, and even introduced in the calendar the day of his memory. In a leap year is March 4, and at the usual – 5.
About the date of birth of Yaroslav Vladimirovich and today I bet. But most historians and scientists are inclined to believe that the Prince was born in 978, although full confidence in this, no one. His birthday even more unknown.
His parents were Vladimir svyatoslavovych, who belonged to the family of Rurik, and Polotsk Princess Rogneda, Aguathuna. Although there is no agreement. For example, the famous historian Nikolai Kostomarov doubted that Rogneda was the mother of Yaroslav. And his French colleague Arrignon and all believed that Prince gave birth to the Byzantine Princess Anna. Allegedly, this is what explains his intervention in the case vnutrisosudistye in 1043.
But for the sake of justice it is worth noting that the rest mass of historians are inclined to believe it was Rogneda woman who gave life to the most famous of the ancient Russian princes.
All four of the children born in marriage to Rogneda, Izyaslav, Mstislav, Yaroslav and Vsevolod, Grand Prince Vladimir sent to reign in different cities. Yaroslav went to Rostov. But since the boy was barely 9 years old, to him was assigned the breadwinner and the Governor Body (other sources of Buda). Later, when grown up Prince Yaroslav the Wise began to reign in Novgorod, benefactor and mentor turned into the nearest ally.
The Reign Of Yaroslav The Wise
This period has the nature of stories and legends. Time of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, as the very identity, some historians tend to idealize, others demonize. However, as always somewhere in the middle.
The Principality of Novgorod had a higher status than the management of Rostov. And yet Novgorod owner had a subordinate status in relation to the Kiev, that is Vladimir. So the Prince Yaroslav the Wise mandatory each year paid to the father 2/3 collected from the Novgorod lands tribute. It was the sum of 2 thousand hryvnias. 1 thousand remained on the content of the nobleman and his wife. I must say that its size is only slightly inferior to the wife of Vladimir.
Probably, this circumstance has pushed the son to rebel, and in 1014 to refuse to pay a huge tribute to my dad. Novgorod supported their mayor, as there is information in the annals preserved. Vladimir became angry and began to prepare a campaign to pacify the rebels. But at that time he was in advanced years. Soon fell ill and died suddenly, and did not punish the son.
The father took the eldest son, Svyatopolk the Accursed. To protect themselves and to retain power in his hands, he destroyed the three brothers, Boris, who particularly loved the people of Kiev, Gleb and Svyatoslav. The same fate awaited the mayor of Novgorod. But he managed to defeat Svatopluk in the bloody battle of Ljubech, and in 1016 came to Kiev. A fragile truce between the brothers, divided Kiev on the Dnieper river, from time to time passed in the «hot» stage. But in the 1019-year-Svyatopolk and Yaroslav I the Wise began the absolute reign of the Kievan throne.
A huge merit of Prince Yaroslav the Wise was the victory over the Pechenegs. It happened in 1036. According to Chronicles, the city was upset by nomads in the period when the Emperor was away in Novgorod, where he took part in the Foundation of the Church. But after receiving the news about the danger, he quickly returned and defeated the Pechenegs. From this moment their cruel and bloody raids on Russia has long ceased.
Began the «Golden» time of Yaroslav the Wise. After won victories nobleman took over a big building. In place of the brilliant victory over the nomads was laid for the Cathedral of St. Sophia. It was largely a copy of the Cathedral in Constantinople. Decorated with magnificent frescoes and mosaics, the temple of contemporaries were impressed with the beauty and pleasing to the eye today.
The ruler spared no expense on grandeur of the Church and were invited to finish the Cathedral the best Greek masters. And in the city there are the famous Golden gate, repeated the same in Constantinople. Above them rose the Church of the Annunciation.
Policy Of Yaroslav The Wise
The Governor has made considerable efforts to interrupt the dependency of the Russian Orthodox Church prevailed over the Byzantine Empire. So in 1054 for the first time in the history of Russia it was headed by the Russian Church, not the Greek Metropolitan. His name was Hilarion.
Yaroslav the Wise domestic policy was aimed at improving the education of the people and eradication of the remnants of the pagan faith. The Christian faith is instilled with renewed vigor. This son continued the work of his great father Vladimir the Baptist.
Son ordered to translate the Greek manuscripts in the Slavic language. He loved to read and tried to instill a love of reading and education to their subordinates. The clergy began to » teach children to read and write. Appeared in Novgorod school for boys, which won 300 of the first disciples.
The number of books quickly grew and the book of wisdom was a sort of fashion of the time. To be educated has become prestigious.
In the tale of bygone years says something about a collection of books and documents, which is called the Library of Yaroslav the Wise. Scientists talk about different quantities: from 500 to 950 volumes. According to some, the library was given by Prince (according to other sources – his great-grandson) of St. Sophia Cathedral.
As old books that a thousand years is not found, there are many hypotheses, where they can be stored. Some argue that it may be dungeon of St. Sophia Cathedral, others speak of the catacombs of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, and others – about the Vydubychi monastery. But there are skeptics who believe that the priceless tomes could not survive after the devastating Polovtsian raids and fires.
Another version, which has the right to exist – the Library of Yaroslav the Wise became part of the legendary Library of Ivan the terrible.
Prince Yaroslav the Wise was behind the appearance of the first Russian monasteries, chief among them is Kiev – Pechersk. The monastery has not only made a huge contribution to the promotion and popularization of Christianity and Orthodoxy, but also played a huge role in education. Because here Chronicles were composed and translated books.
And it’s a great time of the «Russian truth» of Yaroslav the Wise. This is the first code of laws of Russia, which followers could add and multiply.
Historians appreciate the foreign policy of the nobleman, in which he also achieved great success. I think he was the first Russian Prince has focused on diplomacy, not force of arms. At that time the main way to establish relations with other States was considered dynastic marriages. As well as Kievan Rus during the reign of the Wise became educated and strong state, «to intermarry» with her expressed desire by many rulers of European countries.
Wife of Yaroslav the Wise was the daughter of the king of Sweden Olaf – Ingigerda, received after baptism the name of Irene. From her father she inherited a rich dowry in the city of Aldeigjuborg (Ladoga). The adjacent land has received the name Ingria (which translates as the land of Ingigerda).
The son of Prince Vsevolod, married a Greek Princess. Two descendants of German princesses. Son Izyaslav took to wife the sister of the Polish Duke Casimir, and Casimir himself married the sister of the Wise Dobrogei.
Such dynastic marriages were the daughters of the Kievan nobles. Elizabeth was married to Norwegian king Harald, Anastasia – the Hungarian king Andrew. But the most famous and respected was the daughter of Anna Yaroslavna, who became the wife of French king Henry I. as a result of this foreign policy of Prince Yaroslav the Wise was linked by ties of kinship with a lot of strong neighbors, near and far.
The founder of cities
Prince Yaroslav the Wise founded the Yuriev. It happened in 1030, when he went on a campaign against the Chud people. New city, named after an angel that appeared on the shores of lake Peipsi. Now called Tartu is the second largest Estonian city of Tallinn.
Another city of Yaroslav the Wise in Yaroslavl, although some historians believe the fact of his founding the Prince is not certain.
There is another St. George, which was founded by the Prince. This town was both a fortress which was part of the Porosskih defensive line. It was erected for the protection of Kiev from nomads. In 1240 the Tatar-Mongols destroyed it, leaving only the ruins of the Church. Around her the city was reborn under the name of White Church. He said so today.
Many historians agree on the opinion that the wife Ingigerda, after the baptism became Irina, had an enormous influence on her husband and left a noticeable trace in the history of Russia. Received it from his father, inherited lands in 1703 by Peter the great had built St. Petersburg.
In Kiev thanks to Princess Irina appeared first convent. It was built at the Church of St. Irene. One of his columns «survived» until the mid-twentieth century. Now about the existence of the temple resembles a quiet street Irininskaya street.
How did the personal life and Ingigerd of Yaroslav-Irina – hard to say today. We only know that in a marriage with her were born 6 sons and 3 daughters. The wife shared the views of her husband and moved in his faith, a lot of making for its advancement.
Big handsome nobleman, it seems, was not. Strongly protruding nose and the same chin, sharply defined mouth and large eyes more attractive. And he was a limp due to different leg length. According to one version – because damaged in the battle of the hip and knee joints, and on the other due to hereditary Perthes disease.
There is a historical mystery-a puzzle to which different historians there is an opinion. Some of them claim that Prince Yaroslav the Wise was married twice. His first wife was supposedly Norwegian Anna. To this marriage was born a son, Ilya. But in 1018, he and his mother were captured by the Polish king Boleslaw the Brave and taken forever to Poland. This version is allegedly supported by the fact that the name Anne is found in some of the Chronicles.
But there are opponents of this controversial version. They argue that it’s much easier. Anna is the monastic name Ingigerd Irina. Supposedly it late in life became a nun, taking his name. In 1439, Archbishop Euthymios took Anna to the saints. It is considered the heavenly patron of Novgorod.
It is noteworthy that the Prince Yaroslav the Wise was attached to the Holy only in the XXI century.
The last years of the life of Prince Yaroslav the Wise held in Vyshgorod. He died on the feast of the triumph of Orthodoxy at the hands of one of his sons Vsevolod, having survived for 4 years my wife and 2 eldest of the sons of Vladimir.
Date of death of the Prince believe 20 Feb 1054. He was buried in St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, a 6-ton marble sarcophagus. Unfortunately, the remains of the great ruler is gone. It is known that the sarcophagus in the twentieth century was opened three times: in 1936, 1939 and 1964. And it did not always efficiently and conscientiously.
After opening in 1939, the remains of Yaroslav the Wise was sent to Leningrad, where the scientists of the Institute of anthropology for the first time confirmed that one of the 3 skeletons (male, female and children) of the exposed graves really belongs to the Prince. On the found skull the anthropologist Mikhail Gerasimov was able to restore the image of the ruler.
Remains returned to Kiev. But in 2009, the tomb was again opened and found that the remains of the ancient Rurik no. On the spot found two female skeletons, one of Kievan Rus, the second is even more ancient Scythian period. And yet the tomb found the newspaper «Izvestia» and «Pravda» in 1964.
Many historians and researchers are inclined to believe that the remains should be looked for in the United States. Supposedly there was taken in 1943, when retreating German troops.