(biography, photos, videos) Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
Winston Churchill: biography
Winston Churchill – one of the largest and contrast political figures of the twentieth century. As for Britain and for the whole world politics has been of immense value, but in the modern society remains a controversial issue: some people admire the personal courage and acts of policy, and at others it is disgusting because of the position according to which rule the world was only white race. Despite the fact that Churchill openly fought the dictatorship in the fields of battle, he did not hide his sympathy for the activities of Benito Mussolini and Stalin acting in the years of his rule founders of a totalitarian and personal modes of governance in Italy and the USSR.
Born Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill 30 November 1874 at the family estate of the Dukes of Marlborough, Blenheim Palace. His parents were wealthy and influential people – father, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer, was a famous politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer of great Britain, and mother Jenny was the daughter of a wealthy American businessman. The future politician was the firstborn in the family, but was neglected because the father was constantly busy with political career, and his mother all the time was devoted to secular life. Therefore the education of young Winston was involved in the nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, was the closest to Churchill man.
Immediately after the birth of future Prime Minister of Britain became a member of the «higher castes» privileged class that could block her way to a brilliant political career, as the nobles had no right to enter the House of Commons and the government. But as it turned out, Winston became the representative side of the line of Churchills, which allowed him to become a great politician.
At the age of seven he was sent to boarding school in St. George, where he paid attention to education than teaching students. School Winston showed his unwillingness to learn and to reckon with the strict internal regulations, for which has repeatedly been subjected to floggings with rods. After regularly visiting his sitter noticed the boy’s body traces of a beating hard, she insisted on transferring to Churchill in another school, but in the Brighton school sisters Thomson he also loved school and was the last of the discipline the student in the class.
At the age of 12 the young Winston began to have serious health problems – he had been ill with pneumonia, which weakened his entire body. In this regard, he left traditional higher education institution for men kind Marlborough at Eton, and entered into no less prestigious College that is located in harrow. This choice was made because of the geographical location of the University. But here, Churchill continued to show indifference to subjects – he taught only that he was interested, and everything else is completely ignored with his usual zeal. So in 1889 he was transferred to the «military class» in the curriculum that placed emphasis on military Affairs. Here it is from obstinate pupil he had become a diligent student. He managed to become one of 12 graduates of this school, who were able to pass the final exams in all subjects, which allowed Churchill to enter the higher military school in the UK, which he graduated in the rank of second Lieutenant.
In 1895, after the military school he was enrolled in the 4th hussars regiment of the Royal Majesty, but after a short time realized that his military career is not attractive. Through connections of his mother, until she became a widow Randolph Churchill, Winston had received a distribution in Cuba, where he was appointed a war correspondent, continuing to be in active military service. Debut in journalism brought Osborn glory and vocation of the society and allowed to make the first very significant fees in the amount of 25 guineas. Besides the glory and earnings from Cuba Churchill brought two lifelong habits – the Smoking Cuban cigars and strict adherence to the Siesta, which suggests afternoon.
In 1896, he continued his journalistic journey, and was sent to India and then to Egypt. Here Churchill showed all his fighting courage, in addition to coverage, he personally participated in the fighting, faithfully referring to his officer duties.
In 1899, Winston Churchill decided to resign and to devote himself to politics. By the time he was a famous journalist, so was counting on the support of society. The first attempt to enter the Parliament in the composition of the Conservative party was a failure – the voters chose the liberals.
Moving away from politics, Churchill went on a journalistic journey. This time he was sent to South Africa, in the vast unfolding of the Anglo-Boer war. There he was captured by enemies, where he made a daring escape, which was the finest hour Churchill as a politician: voters promised him to vote regardless of «political passions». However, he decided to return to the battlefield, where he took part in many battles for the sake of compatriots from his former prison.
The courageous adventure of Churchill enabled him to return home a true hero – he easily won the parliamentary elections in 1900 and entered the houses of the communities where safely secured a place in the next 50 years. In the same year he published his only literary work, the novel «Savrola», which, according to historians, the politician in the role of the protagonist portrayed himself.
From the first days in Parliament, Winston Churchill without hesitation acted with sharp criticism of conservatives, expressing complete disagreement with the program chief ideologist of the country of Joseph Chamberlain. That is why the future Prime Minister of great Britain after 4 years left the Conservative party and switched to the liberals – this step allowed him to fly swiftly on the political ladder. First, he became Deputy colonial Secretary, was then appointed Minister of trade, after received the post of Minister of internal Affairs, and a year later, Churchill became Minister of naval forces, thus becoming the youngest politician, is the most influential posts in Britain.
Heading the Ministry of naval forces, Winston Churchill suffered a resounding failure: it’s his fault in the First world war disastrously for Britain, ended military operation in Dardanelle, which unnecessarily killed 250 thousand British soldiers. Then, trying to make amends, he resigned and volunteered for the front. Several years later, when «the passion» around Dardanell subsided, Churchill returned to the government, where he held the post of Minister of military supplies, which also could not Express themselves properly, so had to take a few years of «political break», moving away completely from politics.
The Prime Minister of Britain
The return to politics Winston Churchill was marked with the beginning of world war II, when Germany invaded Poland, then Britain declared war on Adolf Hitler. He was asked to become First Lord of the Admiralty, who are entitled to vote on the Military Council, because he never promised eternal peace in his country and was one of the few people, according to the authorities, is able to lead the nation to victory.
Concentrating in his hands all the main levers to mobilize the country to a decisive struggle with Nazi Germany, Churchill was able to climb to the pinnacle of power and become Prime Minister of Britain, however, the most difficult for England period. But determination, perseverance and a sober assessment of the situation allowed the British Prime Minister to successfully carry on a war to victory, creating a victorious coalition with the USA and the USSR. As a prominent opponent of Bolshevism, Churchill between Hitler and Stalin chose the latter, as expected, he was not.
In may 1942 he was with the American and Russian leaders Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, Churchill signed an important document on the establishment of the coalition, had the name «Atlantic Charter» that defines the economic and political system in the countries-allies after the victory in the Second world war. After 1945 the leaders of Britain, the USA and the USSR was held the Yalta conference, which defined the political map of the world in the postwar period. Then the leaders of the «Big three» decided that Germany should be divided into 4 occupied zones, and then in the Soviet Union returned to the Baltic States, Western Ukraine, Belarus, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Karelia. At the same time, the Soviet Union pledged to participate in the war with Japan, that was to get southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
Immediately after the Second world war, the whole world split into two political systems, and Churchill began to call on the West to unite against the Communist East to the complete «strangulation» of Bolshevism. But at the time he had to leave politics, as the postwar years in Britain began to have serious economic problems, has increased the country’s external debt has worsened relations with neighboring colonies. This led to the defeat of Winston Churchill in the parliamentary election, and he resigned. In that period he took charge of the government opposition, but rarely appeared in the House of Commons, devoting himself to literary work.
In 1951, at the age of 76 years, Winston Churchill again became Prime Minister of Britain and the next 4 years, ruled the country. The last years of his political activity he devoted to foreign policy with emphasis on the development of nuclear potential of the country, hoping to use it to return the military power of Britain. Health British politician was forced to in a bet and resign as Prime Minister with full honors.
Personal life of Winston Churchill by many historians compare it to «beautiful love story». The great British statesman met the love of his life in 1908 and immediately married the girl. It was Clementine Hozier, the daughter of London aristocrats. With the wife of the British Prime Minister lived a happy 57 years – she was his best friend and chief political adviser, as only after its approval Churchill took important decisions.
Despite the fact that the politician’s wife was younger than him by 11 years, which was considered a great difference in those days, she was able to keep the love in their family, and become the only person able to cope with the sudden and violent character of Churchill. Clementine to Winston gave birth to five children, each of which was the coveted and beloved of his parents. After the death of the British Prime Minister’s wife continued to call him the perfect man, despite the fact that he was a heavy smoker and a player, a night spent in a casino.
Buried Winston Churchill, Clementine has lost the meaning of life and were ready to follow him, but stopped her catch phrase husband, said during the Second world war, when he called Britain «under any circumstances never give up.» This Churchill’s speech helped her to survive the loss over the next 12 years to continue his literary activities, giving the unfinished memoirs of the British leader.
The death of Winston Churchill occurred on 24 January 1965. A distinguished Briton in the history of the country died at the age of 90 years. The cause of death of former British Prime Minister was a stroke, which is not the first time attacked the policy. The funeral of Churchill took place in the state format under the leadership of Queen Elizabeth II – this honor was awarded to only 10 people in the entire history of the UK.
The funeral policy was the most ambitious in the history of the country, as it was attended by representatives of 112 countries and all members of the Royal family. The funeral of Winston Churchill was broadcasted by many TV channels around the world live, allowing nearly 350 million people across the TV screens to say goodbye to an outstanding British.
At the request of Churchill, he was buried in amazoncom cemetery of the Church of St. Martin, near his family estate. The burial was witnessed by only family members and close friends of Churchill.