(biography, photo, video) Vladimir Monomah
Vladimir Monomakh: a biography
The reign of Vladimir Monomakh are the most happy and blooming for the Kievan Rus. A wise statesman, who was Governor of Smolensk, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl principalities and became the Grand Prince of Kiev, a talented military leader and thinker, he Golden letters inscribed his name in the history of the Russian state. «The precept of Volodymyr Monomakh» is simultaneously secular and philosophical teaching their sons and all future generations, and it is today admired wisdom of this great man.
Vladimir Monomakh was born in 1053 year. His father, the Prince of Pereyaslav Vsevolod, was a son of Yaroslav the Wise. A year after the birth of a grandson died, his great-grandfather. Mother of Vladimir, most likely, was a close relative (perhaps daughter) of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomakh. Hence the nickname Prince.
Childhood and youth the future ruler of Kiev passed at the court of his father in Pereyaslavl southern. To participate in the hunting of wild beasts, the father brought the boy a child. Later Monomakh wrote in his instruction to the sons, he visited the bear’s paw, and on the horns of the tour.
But it was only a «warm-up». After all, in 13 years the boy fell on the battle field, where he was taken by the father for understanding of military Affairs. At that age he began to rule independently as Prince of Rostov-Suzdal lands, acquiring the first experience of public administration.
Invaluable experience came in handy when Vladimir Monomakh has been put on the reign of Smolensk. This is the period from 1073 at 1078. The Smolensk Prince took an active part in the fighting, helping neighbors in the fight against external enemies – by the Polovtsy. Military campaigns were frequent. In 1076 year Monomakh Oleg Svyatoslavich supported the poles, taking part in the campaign against the Czechs. Later with his father and Sviatopolk Izyaslavich twice went against Vseslav of Polotsk.
The Reign Of Vladimir Monomakh
In the year 1078 Vsevolod Yaroslavich took reign Kiev. His 25-year-old son Vladimir Monomakh went to Chernigov. To protect their fiefdoms young ruler was forced to repeatedly reflect the devastating raids of the Polovtsy and Mongol-Tatars. Fifteen years a son was the right hand of his father. He helped him in dealing with various political issues and not once became the head of the Grand-Ducal troops, which carried out campaigns to pacify the rebel princes and the destruction of the Polovtsian troops.
In 1093, when the father died, the Vladimir Monomakh might become his successor, the Prince of Kiev. But by the rules of succession of the Metropolitan throne was to take the eldest of Rurik. At the time that turned out to be a cousin Svyatopolk II of Kiev. Monomakh did not want internecine and fratricidal war, and gave the throne to my brother. He went to rule Chernigov.
These 2 dozen years, from 1093 to 1113, Vladimir Monomakh experienced the joy of victories and bitterness of defeats. In battle, he lost the older son and younger brother. In 1094 he gave Chernigov land to Oleg Svjatoslavovich, leaving behind a more «modest» of Pereyaslav Principality.
Cumans continued to bother Kievan Rus. Regular raids had depleted the land. Vladimir Monomakh became the mastermind behind the enterprises of the princes of the face of a common enemy. Some historians believe that he was the initiator of preventive strikes on enemy by organizing forays in the Polovtsian steppe. Especially successful was the campaign in 1111, after which Russia was spared from the raids of the nomads for a long time.
After the death of Svyatopolk in 1113, Vladimir Monomakh took the reins of Kievan Rus and became the Grand Duke. It was a difficult period for Kiev, because at this time began a popular uprising against the usurers. The new owner has not only resisted him, but also took steps to limit the penalty interest.
Monomakh proved to be an effective reformer. It complements the code of laws «Russian truth», written by his grandfather Yaroslav the Wise. Revenge for murder was prohibited and replaced by a financial penalty. And he forbade to pay slave into slavery for unpaid debts. And the situation of ordinary people easier. This was the internal policy of Vladimir Monomakh.
The position of great Prince of Kiev became so strong that nobody dared to challenge his seniority. Monomakh controlled three quarters of the territory of the state.
Foreign policy of Vladimir Monomakh was also successful. The raids of the Bulgarians of the Volga, Chud, Polovtsy and Mongol-Tatars, no longer bothered by the state. And the tribes of Pechenegs, berendeys and Torquay was permanently expelled for limits of Russia. In the «Word of the destruction of the Russian land» this time is called the most happy and carefree.
The concentration of power in one hand and termination of civil wars strengthen the state. Thus began a period of cultural development. The wise Prince was able to leave their literary mark. Unfortunately, to have survived only 4 of his works: the letter to Oleg Svyatoslavich, the story of the autobiographical character of military campaigns, «the Statute of Vladimir Vsevolodovich» (or «Charter of Vladimir Monomakh») and the famous «the Testament of Vladimir Monomakh». These literary works – a valuable source of life experience, handed over the princely descendants and all future generations. And yet – practical advice on management of the state.
Died famous ruler 19 may 1125. He was honorably buried in Kiev, in St. Sophia Cathedral.
The nobleman had three wives and many children. Today it is impossible to determine exactly which wife which children gave birth.
But it is known that the personal life of Vladimir Monomakh was eventful. His first wife historians call Gita of Wessex. This English Princess and daughter of the Anglo-Saxon king Harold II. She bore her husband six (according to another version, seven) sons, Mstyslav, Yaropolk, Vyacheslav, Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Roman.
Two sons of Monomakh – Yuri and Andrey. But historians disagree about the Gita was the mother of Yuri, who became known as the Yury Dolgoruky. And Vladimir had several daughters. We heard three names: Maria (Maritsa), Euphemia and Agatha.