(biography, photo, video) Vladimir Ulyanov
Vladimir Lenin: biography
Vladimir Lenin – a great leader workers whole world, which is considered the most prominent politician in world history, created the first socialist state. Russian Communist philosopher and theorist, continued the work of Marx and Engels, which has been widely deployed in the early XX century, and today is in the public interest, as its historical role is different weighty significance not only for Russia but for the whole world. The activity of Lenin has both positive and negative evaluations, that does not prevent the founder of the Soviet Union to be the largest revolutionary in world history.
Born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov on 22 April 1870 in Simbirsk in the Russian Empire in the family of the inspector of schools Ilya Nikolaevich and school teacher Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanov. He was the third child of parents in their children put all heart and soul – mother completely refused to work and devoted himself to the education of Alexander, Anna and Volodya, after which gave birth to Maria and Dmitri.
In the childhood Vladimir Ulyanov was mischievous and very smart boy – at 5 years old he has already learned to read before joining the Simbirsk gymnasium became a «walking encyclopedia». In school he showed himself studious, diligent, talented and accurate student, for what was repeatedly awarded with creditable sheets. Classmates Lenin told that the future world leader of the workers used in the class of great respect and authority because of his mental superiority felt each student.
In 1887 Lenin graduated from the gymnasium with a gold medal and entered the law school of Kazan University. In the same year, in the Ulyanov family was a terrible tragedy, Sr., Lenin’s brother Alexander was executed for his participation in the assassination of Tsar Alexander III. This grief brought to the future founder of the Soviet Union the protest spirit against the national oppression of the tsarist regime and, therefore, already in the first year of University, he creates the student revolutionary movement, for which he was expelled from University and sent into exile in the small village of Kukushkino is located in the Kazan province.
From this moment on biography of Vladimir Lenin is inextricably linked with the struggle against capitalism and autocracy, whose main aim was the liberation of workers from exploitation and oppression. After the exile, in 1888, Ulyanov returned to Kazan, where he immediately joined one of the Marxist circles. In the same period, Lenin’s mother acquired a nearly 100-hectare estate in Simbirsk province, and persuaded Vladimir Lenin to control it. This did not prevent him from continuing to liaise with the local professional revolutionaries who helped him to find the people and create organized movement of Protestants to the Imperial power.
In 1891, Vladimir Lenin was able to pass external examinations at the Imperial St. Petersburg University law faculty. After that, he worked as an assistant to a sworn advocate from Samara, doing «official protection» of criminals. In 1893 a revolutionary moved to Saint Petersburg and in addition to legal practice engaged in writing historical works on Marxist political economy, the creation of the Russian liberation movement, capitalist evolution of post-reform villages and industry. Then he began to create the program of the social democratic party.
In 1895, Lenin made his first trip abroad and made the so-called tour of Switzerland, Germany and France, where he met with his idol, Georgi Plekhanov, and Wilhelm Liebknecht and Paul Lafargue, who were the leaders of the international workers ‘ movement. After returning to St. Petersburg Lenin managed to unite all the disparate Marxist groups in the Union of struggle for the emancipation of the working class», the head of which began to prepare a plan for the overthrow of the autocracy. Actively promoting their ideas of Lenin and his allies had been taken into custody, and after years in prison he was sent to Shushenskoye Elysee province.
While in exile he established a relationship with the social Democrats in Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Voronezh, Nizhny Novgorod, and in 1900 at the end of the link traveled all Russian cities and personally made contact with numerous organizations. In 1900, the leader creates the newspaper «Iskra», under the articles which first signed with the pseudonym «Lenin». In this same period he becomes the initiator of the Congress of the Russian Social-democratic labour party, which then split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Revolutionary led the Bolshevik ideological and political party, and launched an active struggle against Menshevism.
In the period from 1905 to 1907 Lenin lived in exile in Switzerland, where he was engaged in preparations for an armed revolt. There he found the First Russian revolution, the victory of which he was interested, as it tore a path of socialist revolution. Then Vladimir Ilyich illegally returned to Petersburg and began to be active. He sought at any price to attract peasants to their side, forcing them to armed revolt against autocracy. Revolutionary urged people to arm themselves with all that is at hand and to attack civil servants.
The October revolution
After the defeat of the First Russian revolution and the unity of all Bolshevik forces, Lenin, analyzing the error, began to revive the revolutionary movement. Then, he created his legal Bolshevik party, published a newspaper «Pravda», the chief editor of which was Joseph Stalin. In that period, Lenin lived in Austria-Hungary, where he caught a World war.
Once in prison on suspicion of espionage in favor of Russia, Lenin, in the course of two years preparing their theses on the war, and after his release went to Switzerland, where he made a slogan of turning the imperialist war into civil war.
In 1917 Lenin and his associates were allowed to travel from Switzerland through Germany to Russia, where he was held. First appearance of Lenin before the people began with the call for «social revolution» that caused discontent even among the Bolshevik circles. In that time, the theses of Lenin supported Stalin also believed that the power in the country should belong to the Bolsheviks.
October 20, 1917, Lenin arrived at Smolny and began to lead a revolt, which was organized by the Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet, Leon Trotsky. Vladimir Ilyich has proposed to act promptly, firmly and clearly – from 25 to 26 October the Provisional government was arrested, and on November 7 at the all-Russian Congress of Soviets adopted Lenin’s decrees on peace and land, and organized the Council of people’s Commissars, whose Chairman was Vladimir Ilyich.
Then went to 124-day «Smolninsky period», during which Lenin spent his active work in the Kremlin. He signed a decree creating the red army, signed the Brest peace Treaty with Germany and began to develop the program the formation of a socialist society. At the moment the Russian capital of Petrograd was transferred to Moscow, and the Supreme authority in Russia was the Congress of Soviets of workers, peasants and soldiers. After carrying out major reforms, which was to exit World war and the transfer of land to the landlords of the peasants in the former Russian Empire was formed the Russian socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), the rulers of which were the Communists, led by Vladimir Lenin.
The head of the RSFSR
With the coming to power of Lenin, according to many historians, ordered the shooting of the former Russian Emperor Nicholas II along with his entire family in July 1918 adopted the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Two years later, Lenin eliminated the Supreme ruler of Russia Admiral Alexander Kolchak, who was his strongest opponent. Then the head of Federation has implemented a policy of «red terror», designed to strengthen the new authorities in the prospering of the anti-Bolshevik activities. Then it was restored the decree of the death penalty, which could get everyone who disagreed with Lenin’s policy.
After that Vladimir Lenin had begun the defeat of the Orthodox Church. Since that period the believers were the main enemies of the Soviet regime. In the period of persecutions and executions have undergone Christians who tried to protect the Holy relics. There was also a special camp for «re-education» of the Russian people, where people are particularly rigid ways accused that they are obliged to work for free in the name of communism. This led to a massive famine that killed millions of people, and the terrible crisis.
This result forced the leader to deviate from his intended plan and create a new economic policy, during which the people under the «supervision» of the commissioners restored the industry, revived construction and held industrialization of the country. In 1921, Lenin abolished war communism, has replaced the food allocated to the food tax, allowed private trade, which allowed the broad mass of the population to search for means of survival.
In 1922 on the recommendations of Lenin was created by the Soviet Union, after which the revolutionary had to move away from power health deteriorated sharply. After an acute political struggle in the country in the pursuit of power the sole leader of the Soviet Union was Joseph Stalin.
The death of Vladimir Lenin it was the 21st of January 1924 at the estate of Gorki, Moscow province. According to official figures, the leader of the Bolsheviks died of atherosclerosis, caused by heavy congestion on the job. Two days after the death of Lenin’s body was transported to Moscow and placed in the hall of columns, where for 5 days was a farewell to the founder of the Soviet Union.
27 Jan 1924, Lenin’s body was embalmed and placed in a specially built Mausoleum located in red square of the capital. Ideologue of the creation of the relics of Lenin became his successor Joseph Stalin, who wanted to make Vladimir Ilyich «God» in the eyes of the people.
After the USSR collapse the issue of reburial of Lenin repeatedly raised in the state Duma. However, he remained in the discussion stage in 2000, when he came to power, Vladimir Putin during his first term in office put an end to this issue. He said that he sees the desires of the vast majority of the population to rebury the body of the leader of the world, and while it does not appear that this topic will be discussed no longer in modern Russia.
Personal life of Vladimir Lenin, like most professional revolutionaries, was a mystery to the conspiracy. With his future wife Nadezhda Krupskaya, he met in 1894 in the organization of the «Union of struggle for the emancipation of the working class». She blindly followed loved and participated in all actions of Lenin, and that was the reason for their permission first links. Not to leave, Lenin and Krupskaya were married in the Church, as they invited the boyars Shushenskaya peasants, and the wedding rings they made them an ally of copper nickels.
The sacrament of marriage, Lenin and Krupskaya took place on 22 July 1898 in the village of Shusha, then Hope has become a faithful companion of the great leader, before whom bowed, despite its rigidity and degrading treatment to him. Becoming a real Communist, Krupskaya kept his sense of ownership and jealousy, which allowed her to remain the wife of Lenin, in whose life there were many women.
The question «was Lenin’s children?» — still provokes interest worldwide. There are several historical theories concerning the paternity of the leader of the Communists – some argue that Lenin was barren, while others call him the father of many children illegitimate children. However, many sources claim that Vladimir Ilyich was the son of Alexander Steffen from his lover Inessa Armand, a novel which revolutionary lasted about 5 years.