(biography, photos, videos) Valeriy Chkalov
Valery Chkalov: biography
Valery Chkalov, a legendary Soviet test pilot, hero of the Soviet Union, made the first nonstop flight across the North pole.
He was born in 1904 in the village of Vasilevo, located in the Nizhny Novgorod region. It is interesting that now this place has received not only the status of a city, but also a new name in honor of the great native city. Valera’s parents were ordinary people. Dad Paul G., worked as a boilermaker at the shipyard, and my mother Irina Ivanovna, was a housewife. Unfortunately, she died when her son was 6 years old.
Soon, the boy began to attend school. The lessons Chkalov did not show much interest, but from the very first days it showed a talent for mathematics, and a great memory to remember large amounts of information, in fact, heard vaguely. After the compulsory seven-year-old Valery went to Cherepovets technical school, but to finish the girl failed. Due to the lack of Finance, the school was eliminated.
The guy returned to his father and begins work as a Stoker on a steamer. No one knows what would have been the fate of the future Hero of the Soviet Union, if in 1919, he saw with his own eyes the plane. Chkalov in the head as if something clicked and he began to dream to connect his life with the aircraft. In 15 years, Valera, due to the fact that he voluntarily joined the red Army, he became an apprentice mechanic at a military aircraft factory.
Later the young man had studied in the institutions of the air force. He walked Egor military-theoretical school, then Borisoglebsk military aviation pilot school, Moscow military aviation school of aerobatics, and finally graduated from the Serpukhov higher school of air firing, bombing and air combat. During training, Chkalov flew on the technique of different types and qualified as a fighter pilot.
His professional career started in 1924. He was sent to the aviation squadron to Leningrad. It should be noted that Chkalov always been not only courage, but also recklessness. He often made a very risky flights, for what repeatedly received sanction from his superiors and was even convicted for flat hatting and sentenced to several months in prison.
There is a legend, though not documented, that Valery Chkalov flew on the dispute under the Trinity bridge in Leningrad. But the main achievements of the pilot was the testing of new products for the aviation industry. For example, the pilot was at the controls of the first domestic aircraft carrier and carried on the wings and fuselage of five fighter planes. For his service he along with the aircraft seemed to receive the highest state awards, including was awarded the order of Vladimir Lenin and the red Star.
In 1935, Valery Chkalov, together with colleagues with Georgy Bajdukov and Aleksandr Belyakov decided to make a flight from the Soviet Union to the United States via the North pole. But the head of state Joseph Stalin banned this project, replacing the route «Moscow — Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky».
This record at the time the flights were carried out by the above command without any problem. The length of the so-called «Stalin’s route» was more than 9 thousand kilometers. For this feat, the pilots were awarded the title hero of the Soviet Union, Chkalov, as the commander of an aircraft became a favorite of the citizens of the country. Him from the government even presented a private plane brand b-2.
On the wave of popularity Valery dared to go back to Stalin with the initial offer and this time got the nod. June 18, 1937, Chkalov with his comrades took off from Moscow, and despite the poor visibility conditions, managed to reach us the city of Vancouver, Washington. The flight over the North pole turned Chkalov-folk hero, a living legend.
At the age of 23 years while serving in Leningrad, Valery Chkalov married Olga Orekhova which a degree was a teacher. In this family was born a son, Igor, who followed in the footsteps of his father, became a military pilot and rose to the rank of Colonel. By the way, wife, and son have written many articles and several books about his great relative.
Chkalov also had two daughters, Valeria and Olga. And the younger, Olga, had never seen since she was born a few months after his tragic death.
Valery was the author of several books in which he described his impressions of the flights. The most valuable from a historical point of view is «High above the ground. The stories of the pilot» and «Our Transpolar flight from Moscow — North pole — North America».
At the end of autumn 1938 Valery Chkalov was a well-earned vacation from which it unexpectedly withdrew. Was appointed unplanned and very urgent test of the fighter-what’s new «I-180». Test flight is being prepared in great haste, with the violation of almost all security measures. Just before the fatal test of the plane was found about 190 serious defects.
Developer unit, wrote notes of protest on the quick launch of the flying machine. But the test was scheduled for December 15, 1938, and they have not canceled despite the very low air temperature. The flight went well, but during the approach of aircraft on landing approach the engine suddenly stopped. Legendary AC still managed to put the car on free from houses. But at the last moment the plane caught on electric wires, and the pilot hit his head on metal fittings.
Valery Chkalov from the received traumas has died two hours later at the Botkin hospital. After his death he was arrested and sentenced several leaders of the aviation factory, which was accused of indirect involvement in the death of the pilot. However, many people, including his wife and older children, repeatedly put forward alternative versions of the death of their loved one.
A sharp call Valery Pavlovich vacation, rush to the departure, the pressure of the government aroused family suspicion of involvement in the death of Chkalov people from the NKVD, and possibly the person of Joseph Stalin and Lavrenti Beria. Members of the government might have feared, and not without reason, that the Soviet citizens of the big pilot will be a more important figure than themselves.
In memory of Valery Chkalov, a plurality of monuments and memorials, its name cities and streets. And, of course, about the legend of Russian aviation made films. Most of them are popular with viewers, but not all have been approved by the family. For example, the last TV series «Chkalov», where the main role played by actor Eugene Dyatlov, was harshly criticized by the daughters of the Hero of the Soviet Union, which accused the film-makers to a significant substitution of biographical facts.