(biography, photos, videos) Stephen William Hawking
Stephen Hawking: a biography
Theoretical physicist and world-renowned scientist Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford, UK in the family of doctors. Father Frank was engaged in scientific research, mother Isabel held the position of Secretary of the medical institution, working in a team with her husband. Steve grew up with two sisters and half-brother Edward, who was adopted by a family Hawking.
After graduating from high school, Stephen enrolled in the University of Oxford, after which in 1962 he received a bachelor’s degree. After two and a half years, in 1966, the young man became one of the first doctors of philosophy of the College of Trinity Hall at Cambridge University.
From his early years, Stephen was a healthy boy, even in his youth he was not bothered by any ailments. But it happened misfortune. The young Stephen discovered the horrible disease – amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
The diagnosis sounded like a death sentence. Symptoms developed with great speed. As a result the future genius of science was left completely paralyzed. Despite this photo, Stephen Hawking always appears with a kind smile. Being confined to a wheelchair, Stephen did not stay in mental development, to educate ourselves, studied the scientific literature, attended workshops. This guy fought every minute. The spirit helped in 1974 to obtain permanent membership in the Royal society.
In 1985, Stephen Hawking had surgery on the larynx that cannot be avoided in complicated pneumonia. Since then, Steven has completely stopped talking, but continued to actively communicate with colleagues using a speech synthesizer designed by his fellow engineers of the University of Cambridge — especially for him.
For a while He could wiggle the index finger of the right hand. But this ability has disappeared. Mobile remained the only facial muscle cheek. Sensor mounted in front of that muscle, helped Stephen in the management of the computer through which he could communicate with the people around him.
Despite serious illness, the biography of Stephen Hawking are full of fun events, scientific discoveries and achievements. A terrible disease broke Steven, only slightly changed the course of life. Almost completely paralyzed, Stephen Hawking saw the obstacles in his own illness, led a full rich life.
One day He made a real feat. He agreed to experience the conditions in a weightless space, while flying on a specially equipped aircraft. That event happened in 2007, completely changed the views of Stephen Hawking on the world. A scientist has set himself the goal is to conquer the space no later than 2009.
Specializes Stephen Hawking – cosmology and quantum gravity. A scientist investigated the thermodynamic processes that occur in the wormhole, black holes and dark matter. It is named after a phenomenon that describes and characterizes the «evaporation» of black holes» — «Hawking radiation».
In 1974 Stephen and another well-known specialist Kip Korn argued about the nature of the space object Cygnus X-1 and its radiation. Stephen, managing to contradict his own research has proven that this object is not a black hole. However, after being defeated, he gave in 1990, the prize for the winner of the dispute. It should be noted that the rate of young people was quite serious.» Stephen Hawking has bet your annual subscription to an erotic magazine «Penthouse», and Kip corn – four-year subscription to the comic magazine «Private eye».
In 1997, Stephen Hawking has concluded one more bet, but now together with Kip Thorne against John Philip Priscilla. A controversial discussion was the starting point in the revolutionary research of Stephen Hawking, a report which he made at a press conference in 2004. To John, Priscilla, in waves, which radiate black holes, there is some information that is impossible to decipher.
Hawking contradicted this argument, based on the results of these studies, 1975. He argued that the information cannot be decrypted as it enters a Universe parallel to our galaxy.
Later, in 2004, during a press conference in Dublin on the topic of cosmology, Stephen Hawking has put forward a new theory of the nature of a black hole. This conclusion Hawking was defeated again in dispute, internally acknowledged the truth of the opponent. In his theory, the physicist still proved that information does not disappear completely, but will leave a black hole with thermal radiation.
Stephen Hawking is the author of several documentaries about the Universe.
In 2015, the premiere of the feature film «the universe Stephen Hawking», in which a young scientist has performed an outstanding Hollywood actor Eddie Redmayne, according to the producers, is perfect for this role. The film went on quotes, which actively uses British youth.
The movie is the directorial work of James Marsh contains the true story of Steven, talks about his difficult relationship with first wife Jane Wilde. The young actor, who plays legendary scientist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking, after the premiere won the «Oscar» for best actor of the first plan.
In addition to the other merits and achievements in the field of science, Stephen Hawking became famous in another field. He has written several books that are scattered around the world in great quantities. His first work was a book, published in 1988. The artistic-scientific work entitled «a brief history of time» remains a bestseller.
Also, the scientist was the author of the books «Black holes and young universes», «the World in a nut shell». In 2005, he wrote another book «the Shortest history of time», now in collaboration with writer Leonard Mlodinow. Together with his daughter, Stephen Hawking wrote and published a book for children «George and the mysteries of the Universe», which was released in 2006.
In late 1998, a scientist made detailed scientific prediction about the fate of humanity for the next Millennium. The report was made at government house. His arguments sounded quite optimistic. In 2003, a statement of the researcher was not so encouraging, he advised humanity did not hesitate to move to other inhabited worlds away from the viruses that threaten our survival.
In 1965 Stephen Hawking married Jane Wilde, whom he met at a charity event. The scientist had given birth to two sons and a daughter. Personal life Stephen Hawking wife did not work, and in 1991 they had a divorce. Official reasons for the divorce were not disclosed.
In 1995, Stephen Hawking married for the second time his nurse Elaine Mason, who has long nursed a scientist. After eleven years of marriage, Hawking also divorced his wife.
Children of Stephen Hawking to support his father in all his Affairs and undertakings. In addition to them, the scientist always supported his close friend, the Hollywood actor Comedy Jim Carrey, with whom he appeared in the evenings, and photo shoots for magazines.
Politics and religion
Scientist rejects any theory about the existence of God, and an atheist. Despite this fact, it was blessed by Pope Francis at a special Symposium held within the walls of the Academy of science of the papal residence. For political preferences Stephen Hawking considers himself to labour.
In the spring of 1968, a scientist along with social activist Tariq Ali and actress Vanessa Redgrave took part in protests against the Vietnam war.
Later, in the 80-ies, the scientist has supported the idea of his colleagues on nuclear disarmament, General health and normalization of global climate of the Earth.
The decision of the American President, which led to the war on the territory of the Republic of Iraq in 2003, the scientist called the crime of military officials. In the same year, he supported a boycott of Israeli participants of conference on questions of political power against the inhabitants of Palestine.
Now Stephen Hawking is working on a new questions of the Universe, gives lectures on physics at the Institute, is engaged in active research.