(biography, photos, videos) Stepan Bandera
Stepan Bandera: a biography
Stepan Bandera — Ukrainian politician, main figure of Ukrainian nationalism. Biography of Stepan Bandera is filled with a train of terrible events, this political figure passed through the concentration camps, murder and prison, many facts of his biography are still shrouded in a haze of mystery. However, a lot of data about Stepan Bandera is known for sure, mainly because written his autobiography shortly before his death.
Stepan Bandera: life declassified and facts
Born Stepan Bandera 1 January 1909 in the village of Old uhryniv (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Austria-Hungary) in a family of Greek-Catholic priest. Stepan was born the second child, after the family had six more children. My parents weren’t home they lived in belonged to the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church service house. In his autobiography, already a grown Bandera wrote that from early childhood the family was dominated by a spirit of patriotism, the parents brought up children «living national cultural, political and social interests».
In the office house had a large library, it was visited by many important politicians in Galicia: Michael Gavrilko, Yaroslav Veselovskiy, Paul Grodzinski. They had an undeniable influence on the future leader of the organization of Ukrainian nationalists (OUN). Primary education Stepan Bandera was also received at home, his father, Andriy Bandera, and some science was taught by incoming teachers Ukrainka.
Family of Stepan Bandera was extremely religious, the future leader of OUN was a very obedient child, respect their parents. Bandera’s early years was a believer, morning and evening for a long time he prayed. From early childhood, Stepan Bandera was going to be a fighter for freedom of Ukraine, so in secret from their parents were preparing his body to pain: he stabbed himself with needles, tortured with heavy chains, poured ice water. Because of the so-called pain exercises Bandera got rheumatism of the joints, which haunted him until his death.
At the age of five Bandera witnessed the outbreak of the First world war, they were destroyed because through the village of Old uhryniv held several soldiers. An even greater influence on his further activities made a surprising surge in the national liberation movement. This movement was attended by the father of Bandera: he was instrumental in the formation of the residents of the surrounding villages full of military units and provide them with the necessary weapons.
In 1919, the year of Stepan Bandera enrolled in the gymnasium in Stryi, where he studied for eight years, during which he studied Latin, Greek language, literature and history, philosophy and logic. In high school about Bandera remembered as «a low, poorly dressed young man». In General, Bandera was very active student, despite the diseases of the joints: he did a lot of sports and participated in many activities, sang in the choir and played musical instruments.
Stepan Bandera: the beginning of a career
After high school, Stepan was engaged in cultural-educational work, farming, and also conducted various youth clubs. Simultaneously Bandera worked in the underground Ukrainian military organization (UVO) — documentary he became a member of SVR only in 1928 year, but with this organization met as a schoolboy.
In 1928, the year Stepan moved to Lviv, where he studied at the Lviv Polytechnic national University in the agronomy Department. Continued to work UVO and the OUN. Bandera was one of the first members of the OUN in Western Ukraine. A flurry of activity Bandera was multifaceted: the clandestine correspondent of the satirical magazine «nation’s Pride», the organizer of the illegal delivery to Ukraine many foreign publications.
In 1932, the year the career of Stepan Bandera has received a new round of development: first, he took the post of Deputy regional guide of the OUN, and in 1933, the year he was appointed the acting regional guide of the OUN in Western Ukraine and the regional commandant of the military division of the OUN-SVR. From 1930 to 1933 Stepan Bandera was arrested about five times: for anti-Polish propaganda, the attempt on the life of Commissar of the brigade of the political police E. Chekhov, for attempting to illegally cross the Polish-Czech police.
Stepan Bandera: political killings and terrorist attacks
22 Dec 1932, the year that saw the execution of militants of the OUN Bilas and Danylyshyn in Lviv, Bandera organized a propaganda protest: during the execution of all the churches of Lviv seeded ringing.
Bandera was an organizer and many other protests. In particular, 3 June 1933 Stepan Bandera personally supervised the operation to eliminate the Soviet Consul in Lviv — the executor of the operation was Nikolay Lemik which killed a Secretary of the Consul only because of the victim’s workplace at the time was not. For this Lemik was sentenced for life.
In September 1933, the year Bandera organized «school action», in which Ukrainian students boycotted all Polish: from symbols to language. In this action the Bandera failed to engage, according to Polish media, tens of thousands of students. Besides, Stepan Bandera was also the organizer of many political assassinations: not all operations were successful, three of them received the most public attention:
- attempted school supervisor Gadomsky;
- the assassination of the Soviet Consul in Lviv;
- implemented the murder of Minister of internal Affairs Bronislaw pyeratskoho 15 Jun diplomat was shot dead with three shots in the head).
Bandera was the organizer and participant of a huge number of terrorist acts of the OUN, which killed the Polish police, the local Communists, the Galician political elite and their relatives. However, the victims of the OUN became the Ukrainians. By order of Stepan Bandera in 1934, the year was blown up by the editors of the left newspaper «Pratsia» («Work»). The explosives in the wording laid a well-known activist of the OUN in Lviv student Catherine Zaritskaya.
Stepan Bandera: crime, prisons and a concentration camp
July 2, 1936, the year of Stepan Bandera for his crimes in jail «Mokotów» in Warsaw. The next day he was transferred to prison «Twenty Krzyż» («Holy Cross»), not far from the Celica. Bandera remembered that in prison he was miserable because of the lack of normal living conditions: not enough light, water and paper. From 1937, the year the conditions of stay in prison has increased even more, so Bandera and the OUN organized a 16-day hunger strike in protest against the prison administration. This hunger strike was recognized, Bandera concessions.
During detention Bandera moved from various Polish prisons, where he conducted numerous protest actions. After Germany invaded Poland, Bandera was released, like many other Ukrainian nationalists.
July 5, 1941 Bandera was invited to a meeting of the German authorities allegedly for negotiations, but the meeting of Bandera was arrested because he did not want to abandon the «Act of revival of the Ukrainian state», after which she was placed first in the German police prison in Krakow and a half years in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. There he was kept in the block for «political people», watching him.
When Bandera refused the offer of the German authorities, he did not become a new victim of persecution, but remained «behind what is happening» — he lived in Germany and didn’t work. He tried to be aware of what is happening in Ukraine, but was completely isolated from her. But it did not last long, after the split of the OUN he’s already in 1945 year he led, the OUN(b) on the initiative of Shukhevych.
Stepan Bandera: the murder
Killed Stepan Bandera is not his death, he was killed on 15 October 1959 in Munich. According to sources, the murder of Stepan Bandera took place in the entrance of his house: he came home for lunch, but in the stairwell he waited for the agent of KGB Bogdan Stashinsky — he waited for the opportune moment to murder Bandera in January. Bandera Stashinsky killed with a pistol-syringe with potassium cyanide.
Killed in the entrance of Bandera was found by neighbors who heard his scream. He was covered with blood. It was assumed that the worker died from heart failure, but the real reason of the murder of Stepan Bandera helped out law enforcement.
The murderer of Stepan Bandera Bogdan Stashinsky, was arrested by German police in 1962-m to year against the post office began a loud trial in which he admitted guilt. The KGB agent sentenced to eight years imprisonment, but after six years in prison Stashinsky disappeared in an unknown direction.
Stepan Bandera-Hero Of Ukraine
Posthumously in 2010, the year of Stepan Bandera was awarded the title of Hero of Ukraine that was given to him by the then President Victor Yushchenko «for the invincibility of the spirit.» Then Yushchenko noted that millions of Ukrainians waited a long time, when will assign Bandera of Hero of Ukraine, while Yushchenko’s decision was accepted with a standing ovation by the audience, who attended the ceremony of awarding his grandson-namesake of Stepan Bandera.
However, this event caused a great public outcry, many disagreed with the decision of Yushchenko. The European Union has also reacted negatively to this event, therefore, urged the newly elected President Viktor Yanukovich to reverse the decision.
At the same time, the personality of Stepan Bandera is in the public conventional point of view: if in Western Ukraine, Bandera as a symbol of the struggle for independence, East Ukraine, Poland and Russia perceive this politician is mostly negative — they are accused of terrorism, fascism and radical nationalism.
Who are the «Bandera»?
The concept of «Bandera» comes from the name of Stepan Bandera, at the present time this expression has become a household name — in modern society, «Bandera» call all nationalists.
Sources say that the concept of «banderovets» in modern society does not mean that nationalists have quite a positive attitude to Stepan Bandera — the so-called all nationalists, regardless of their point of view on the activities of Bandera.
Stepan Bandera: photo