(biography, photos, videos) Semen Budennuy
Semyon Budyonny: biography
Civil war hero, one of the first Marshals of the Soviet Union Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny for contemporaries – a legendary figure. Today his figure is surrounded by myths and rumors, and the events that took place in his life, was scandalous interpretation of the pseudo-historians hungry for fame in any way. Even his mustache Budennogo «was awarded the» individual myth.
The roots of the family Budyonny buried in the Voronezh region (formerly province). It was here that after the abolition of serfdom fell off the grandfather of the future commander in search of a better life. At that time, the former serf had already grown three small children. He couldn’t pay to obtained possession of the land. Taking simple belongings, and family, Ivan Budyonny went to the don.
In the spring of 1875, one of the sons of Ivan Budennogo – Michael – married woman Melani Yemchenko. The young family settled on a farm Kozhurin, which is located near the Platovskaya Cossack village (now the village Budennovsk). Here in April 1883 and was born the future commander semen Budyonny, the second son in the family. After it came to light 6 more children.
Unbearably heavy, the life is made the head of the family to break away from their homes and to move to the Stavropol region. But, as once his father, Mikhail Budenny, it soon became clear that the new place will not be better. He returned to the don and settled on a farm near Litvinovka from the same village Platovskiy.
Hungry winter of 1892 forced Mikhail Budyonny to borrow money from a local merchant Yatskin. To repay the debt on time failed. Yatskin first wanted to take away the peasant owed a horse, but it was tantamount to murder. The merchant offered to Michael to give him employment in sensible small Seeds, pledging to get my son back a year. Despite the tears and protests of his wife, the poor father agreed. Was not against 9-year-old Semyon Budyonny, who wanted to help the family.
A year later, the boy has not returned home. He remained at the Beck and call Yatskin, doing his errands. When the boy grew older, he was sent to work in a forge assistant. Soon he became a striker. And clever boy quickly realized that without the certificates and any education he will remain a servant of the rich. So the boy agreed with the clerk Yatskin that will teach him to read. For that Simon has pledged to clean up his room, wash dishes and clean the shoes.
After a tiring day at work the guy at the light of a torch did the set homework. And not to fall asleep, he poured ice water or become on the sharp cinders. So the future commander had developed a strong male character.
A real treat for the Seeds to go home on weekends or holidays. The family he was friendly and cheerful, despite the difficulties and the need. Father Ivan on the farm was respected, considering reasonable and fair. He was elected mayor-town, and Budyonny repeatedly stood up for the poor fellow in front of the Cossack ataman.
And in the chief’s house often, there was music. The head of the family and played a tune on the balalaika, and Simon learnt to play the harmonica. Looking ahead, we say that the game Budennogo heard Joseph Stalin. At his request the commander played the tune «the Lady».
A favorite pastime of the young Budyonny was horse racing. In 1900, 17-year-old boy in the competitions organized in honor of the arrival in the village of the Minister of war, delivered from other cities and won. The Minister was surprised that the victory went not to the local Kazak and Russian. For this guy was given a silver ruble.
From the forge guy moved to locomobile grind the same merchant Yatskin. At first he acted as oiler and fireman, and later became a machinist. For beautiful and smart guy stared the young Cossacks. One of them, Hope, Simon, and married in January 1903. And in the autumn of the same year Budenny was drafted.
From that moment began a military biography of Semyon Budyonny. The first page was written in the Imperial army in the far East. There, in the Primorsky Dragoon regiment, the future Marshal immediately felt in her element. And re-enlist. He took part in the Russo-Japanese war as part of the don Cossack regiment, where he distinguished himself. For this in 1907 was sent to St. Petersburg.
During the year, a young military were trained in the cavalry Officer school courses riders. After graduation Semyon Budyonny returned to serve in the Primorsky Dragoon regiment.
In 1914, the outbreak of the First world war in which took part and it. He served as a senior non-commissioned officer in the 18th Seversk Dragoon regiment. Fought on three fronts – the German, Austrian and Caucasian. About how he fought a young Budyonny, can be judged by the awards he received so-called «full bow of St. George». This is the George cross of four degrees and St. George medal of the same four degrees.
History has preserved the information about how the brave non-commissioned officer earned his first cross 4-th degree. He managed to capture a large German convoy with food, medicines and warm clothing. Under the direction of Semyon Budyonny was only a platoon of soldiers, and the convoy of the enemy was accompanied by well-armed the company with easel machine guns. Platoon Budyonny was 33 people. During the battle, two were killed. But the number of prisoners amounted to 200 Germans. In the Imperial military press then reported that the Germans defeated, capturing considerable booty, Caucasian cavalry division. No one could believe that coped with a small squad.
But the cross is not only easy to come to the brave military, but simply selected. For example, Budyonny was deprived of the first George cross for the assault. As it turned out, he «gave back» to a senior officer who had insulted and struck him in the face. In the same 1914 Semyon Mikhailovich returned the award. On the Turkish front in the battle for the city of van, recon platoon, under his leadership, was able to penetrate deep into the rear to capture a battery of the enemy, and 3 guns.
In the summer of 1917, Budyonny arrived in Minsk together with the Caucasian cavalry division. Here he was elected Chairman of the regimental Committee. In August of the same year he, along with Mikhail Frunze in Orsha supervised the disarmament of trains troops of Kornilov.
After the October revolution, Semyon Mikhailovich returned to his native village to the don. He was elected head of the district land Department. But a peaceful life didn’t last long. Civil war began again called him to the road.
In February 1918 Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny was created cavalry unit which fought with the whites. He soon joined the 1st cavalry peasant regiment, commanded. Dumenko.
It took quite some time, and Budenny was appointed Deputy commander of the regiment, rose to brigade and then division. This division successfully fought under the Empress before 1919. And in the second half of the year in the red army was created cavalry corps, which fought with the forces PN. Wrangel came to Voronezh. Led the case of Semyon Budyonny.
The victory led them to the cavalry corps over the troops of General Denikin accelerated the defeat of the enemy forces on the don.
In November 1919 cavalry corps was renamed the First Cavalry army, whose commander was again appointed Semyon Mikhailovich. He ran it until 1923. The cavalry played a crucial role in several major operations. With it was finally destroyed by the troops of Denikin and Wrangel at first in Northern Tavria, and then in the Crimea.
After the Civil war Semyon Mikhailovich although he was appointed Deputy commander of the North Caucasian military district, but was able to do the things he dreamed of all the years of the war: he organized and established a stud, which bred a new breed of horses «Budennovsk» and «Terek».
Budyonny is often called the «godfather» of Chechen Autonomous region. In 1923 it was he who, placing on his head a cap of the Emir of Bukhara, according to the decree of the Central Executive Committee arrived in Urus-Martan and declared autonomy. In the same year to an outstanding military appointed assistant commander of the red Army cavalry.
In 1932, Semyon Mikhailovich graduated from the Military Academy named M. V. Frunze. After 3 years, Budyonny and 4 generals was awarded the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
It was a difficult time, it is difficult to judge today, after many decades. Budyonny some historians have criticized that he easily betrayed his former comrades. For example, in 1937, he advocated the expulsion from the party, and then the execution of N. V. Bukharin and V. A. Rykov. In the spring of the same year, supported the expulsion from the party of M. N. Tukhachevsky and Y. E. Rudzutak. When the question must be put to death by former colleagues, he wrote: «of Course, for. Those bastards need to be executed».
From 1940 Semyon Budyonny was appointed first Deputy people’s Commissar of defense of the Soviet Union. He remained true to the cavalry, insisting on its importance in the war of maneuver. Some historians like to joke on this subject, forgetting to mention that Marshall advocated the modernization of the army, and also for the formation of the horse-mechanized units. Hastening to modernize, by 1938, 32 cavalry divisions remained 13. Later, a number of historians, analyzing military events, agreed on the opinion that the generals in vain did not listen to Budyonny and hurried liquidation of the cavalry.
During the great Patriotic war, Marshal Semyon Budyonny became part of the Supreme command. On his recommendation, the command in the summer of 1941 the beginning of the formation of new cavalry divisions. By the end of 1941 there were more than 80 cavalry divisions. Some historians have erroneously credited with the initiative of Georgy Zhukov.
In the early autumn of the first year of the war, Semyon Mikhailovich was appointed commander of the troops of the southwestern and southern fronts, which stood in the way of the German invasion of Ukraine. In August, upon orders from the engineers of one of the regiments of the NKVD blew up the Dnieper hydroelectric station in Zaporizhia. Streams of gushing water caused the death of many soldiers of the Wehrmacht. But also killed and the soldiers of the red Army. The avalanche of water covered the coastal zone, together with refugees and civilians. Destroyed industrial machinery in the lower part of Zaporozhye.
Later, some historians referred to the huge numbers of dead as a result of operation Budennogo, but there were those who denied it, claiming that the death toll was significantly less and the operation itself.
That Semyon Mikhailovich did not wanted to win by any means, is the fact that in September 1941 he was sent to the headquarters of the Commander-in-chief a telegram in which he offered to withdraw his troops to avoid encirclement. For it was Stalin who removed him from command and replaced by Timoshenko. On the third day after the replacement troops still had to withdraw and to leave Kiev.
Budyonny after discharge was appointed commander of Reserve front. Although he led Backup only 27 days, it is difficult to overestimate his contribution to the defense of Moscow. Because the Reserve front with the Bryansk and Western has managed to protect the capital, although the advantage of the enemy forces was huge.
After the great Patriotic legendary Marshal turned 62. But he remained full of strength and energy. Semyon Mikhailovich for many years not even thinking about the rest. He raised and developed agriculture and animal husbandry in the country, most of the supporting stud. The love of horses he carried through his entire life. Looking ahead, we say that the favorite horse commander named Sophist was so attached to his master that distinguish his approach by the noise of the machine motor. And when Budyonny did not, he wept as a man.
Sculptor N. St. Tomsk immortalized the Sophist in historical. Kutuzov who stands today in Moscow in front of the Museum-panorama «Borodino battle».
The name of the Budyonny was named the only breed of horses, and the famous hat budenovka. There is a version that she was cut sketches Vasnetsov Apollinaris, brother of the artist. Its prototype was allegedly used helmet ancient warrior.
The interest is then history, or a fictional legend about the legendary luxurious mustache Marshall. Rumor has it that in his youth one mustache Budennogo «gray» because in gunpowder. Supposedly Semyon Mikhailovich during the Crimean war, decided to check the trophy rounds on the subject of smokeless they. Lit a cigarette and found that they respond well to the smoke. Later, the owner of «colored» mustache first tinted them, and then decided not to get rid of them. Stopped him Stalin, noting that it is not his moustache, and folk.
In 1979 native Budennogo gave it nausnic Museum of the First cavalry army.
Many contemporaries, including the youngest generation, the name of the Budyonny is known as the 4-deck vessel, constructed in Czechoslovakia. The length of this wonderful ship is 136 meters, and its cabin is placed more than 300 people.
The steam-ship «Simeon Budyonny» as a class «comfort» and makes sea and river cruises.
We know that many associates of Semyon Mikhailovich was in a repressive «meat grinder» and was shot. Budyonny survived. For this reason, too, there are the myths, the translations. According to one version, «black funnels» came to Marshal with opalennye mustache. But he met the intruders with guns blazing and shouting «Who’s first?!». They retreated. When in the morning, Lavrenty Beria reported to Stalin about the incident, he smiled and praised Budyonny. More did not touch him.
According to another version, Semyon Mikhailovich allowed by security officers all of the gun, and then rushed to call Stalin: «Joseph, the counter-revolution! Living will not surrender!». Supposedly after that, the Generalissimo gave orders to leave him alone, saying that «the old fool is not dangerous.»
Not only a military biography, but also personal life of Semyon Budyonny was intense. Happened in her tragic pages. First, Marshall’s wife, and she Kazachka Nadia from a neighboring village, whom he had married in 1903, accompanied her husband during the Civil war. She was responsible for the supply of medical parts. Hope died in 1924. According to one version, it was an accident. The woman allegedly accidentally pulled the trigger of a loaded gun. But there is another version. Say, the enraged husband shot her, after learning about the affair. A third version Nadia was shot during the scandal that she made the wrong husband.
Historians tend to believe the first version, because the fatal shot was heard by many witnesses who saw what pulled the trigger it Hope.
Looks like the commander to be sad for long. Some say that he married a beautiful woman and Opera singer Olga Budnitskii almost on the second day after the death of his wife. Other that the wedding was held six months later. The woman was younger than her husband of 20 years. And as Budyonny loved her madly and had incredible capabilities, it is a favorite faye Reagan got everything he wanted: she entered the Conservatory and became the soloist of the Bolshoi theatre. But the only request of the husband to bear him children – Mikhailov (a stage name she chose) are hard to ignore, arguing that the unwillingness to spoil the figure. Allegedly without the theater, she could not imagine his life.
As it turned out, did not think she and Alexeeva of the world, as of course knew the ubiquitous NKVD. But when Mikhailov often to receptions at foreign embassies, Stalin informed Budyonny. Rumor has it that after a conversation he personally drove his wife to the Lubyanka. Wife of Marshal arrested, accused of espionage.
During the life of the Generalissimo Semyon Mikhailovich didn’t even try to ease her lot. They say he was sure that Olga died. But in 1956, after learning that the woman is alive, her ex-husband made every effort to Mikhailov was released. Subsequently, he cared about her, and the woman even visited the family of Coziness.
The third time the personal life of Semyon Budyonny he had a happy. After the arrest of his wife he entered into marriage with my cousin Mikhailova Maria, who was younger than him by 30 years and that he subsequently loved and incredibly spoiled. Mary bore her husband three children: in 1938, son Sergei, in 1939, daughter Nina, and in 1944, the second son Misha.
Daughter Nina became the second wife of a famous actor Mikhail Derzhavin and father gave birth to two grandchildren.
Died Marshal Budyonny in ‘ 91, having lived a long and full life. He died on 26 Oct 1973. Death was quick from bleeding in the brain.
Buried Semyon Mikhailovich with full honors at the Kremlin wall on red square.