(biography, photos, videos) Petr Vrangel
Pyotr Wrangel: biography
Wrangel Pyotr Nikolayevich – General white, nicknamed the Black Baron, commander of the Armed forces of Southern Russia and Russian army. Brave, brave, tall, in a black Circassian coat and the cloak, he was a terror to the enemy.
Born Peter N. August 15, 1878. in Novoaleksandrovsk, Kovno province (now Zarasai, Lithuania) in a family of Baltic Germans.
His lower Saxon ancestors lived in Estonia from the thirteenth century. In the XVI-XVIII centuries, branches of this family settled in Prussia, Sweden and Russia, after 1920 – in France, USA and Belgium.
In the genus Wrangel for centuries were known seafarers, captains and Arctic explorers. Father Pyotr did not go in the footsteps of famous ancestors chose a different path. Of a fate he dreamed of the son, his childhood and youth were held in Rostov-on-don.
Interesting facts about Wrangel
- Comes from a noble family. The genealogy of his ancestors dates back to the XIII century. The motto of their kind was saying: «I will Break but not bend» («Frangas, non flectes»).
- On the wall of the Temple of Christ the Savior immortalized the name of one of the ancestors who died in the Patriotic war of 1812.
- The name of an ancestor (F. P. Wrangel) called an island in the Arctic ocean.
- His father was a writer, critic and antiquary, the mother was an employee of the Museum.
A brief biography of Wrangel before the Civil war
In 1900 Wrangel graduated from the mining Institute in St. Petersburg, received a diploma and a gold medal. In 1901 he was drafted into military service. The service is in the life guards horse regiment in the status of the individual. Acting as officer on special assignments for the Governor-General of Irkutsk.
The resignation comes in the rank of cornet. v1902 year he enrolled in the Nikolaevsky cavalry school in St. Petersburg. For bravery and involvement in military action in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905 years, his reward Anninsky weapons. In 1907, represent to the Emperor and was transferred to his native regiment. Continues training in the Nikolaev guards Academy, and in 1910 finished it.
At the beginning of the First World war he was a captain of the horse guards. In the first battle, distinguished by the fact that on August 23 in a violent attack near Coustom captured a German battery. Among the first officers awarded the order of St. George 4th degree, and 12 October 1914, received the rank of Colonel.
In autumn 1915 and sent to the South-Western front commander of the 1st Nerchinsk regiment of the TRANS-Baikal Cossacks. The ladder Wrangell climbed not very fast, but deservedly so. Often his companion was Nicholas II, with whom they had a long talk on topics that concern them.
In contrast to Denikin, Kornilov and many colleagues, Wrangel did not support the February revolution and the Provisional government. Believed that revolutionary decrees and the actions of the government undermine the basis of the army. He occupied a minor position and is the outsider in this political struggle.
Fought for discipline and opposed the election of soldiers ‘ committees. Tried to prove that the abdication of Nicholas II would aggravate the situation in the country. Kerensky wanted to bring him to the defense of Petrograd, but he resigned. After the revolution, Wrangel is reunited with his family, which at that time settled in Crimea.
In February 1918, the Baron was arrested by the sailors of the black sea fleet. From execution he is saved by the intercession of his wife. During the occupation of Ukraine by German troops in Kiev was held a meeting of Wrangel and the Hetman Skoropadsky, who had previously been comrades in the service.
Petro was disappointed by the Ukrainian nationalists, which was surrounded by Skoropadsky, as well as its dependence on the Germans. He goes to the Kuban and joined General Denikin, who instructs him to curb one of the rebellious Cossack division. Wrangell not only calmed the Cossacks, but also created a part with great discipline.
In the winter of 1918-1919 he heads the Caucasian army, occupies the basin of the Kuban and Terek, Rostov-on-don, in June 1919 Tsaritsyn takes. Victory Wrangel confirm his talent. In the conduct of military actions as restricted is inevitable in such circumstances, violence was severely punished for looting and pillaging. The soldiers are very much respected it.
In the summer of 1919 three of Denikin’s army marched on Moscow, one of them was commanded by Wrangel. His army was advancing through Nizhny Novgorod and Saratov, but the capture of Tsaritsyn suffered heavy losses. Plan Denikin Wrangel criticized and considered him a loser. He was convinced that the attack on Moscow had to carry on one front.
In the result, the troops were defeated by the red Army. To prevent disaster, Wrangell was sent to Kharkov, but upon arriving there he soon became convinced that the White army was destroyed. An attempt of a conspiracy against Denikin failed and Wrangel was again sent to the Kuban.
In March 1920 the White army new losses, which she barely managed to cross into Crimea. In the defeat of Denikin accused. In April, after his resignation, the new commander-in-chief becomes Wrangell. «The Russian army» — the name given to the white forces that continued to fight against the Bolsheviks.
Wrangell is not only looking for a military solution to problems, but also political. In the Crimea it was established a provisional Republican government for the Union of the people that disillusioned with the Bolsheviks. Political program Wrangel included abstracts on land that should belong to the people and provide security of employment for the population.
At that time, the white movement has not received support of the British, but Wrangel held the reorganization of the army, which has about 25 thousand soldiers. He hoped that the war of the CPC with the Poland of Pilsudski, draw red forces, and he will be able to strengthen its positions in Crimea, and then to launch a counteroffensive.
The red attack on April 13 on the Perekop isthmus was easily repulsed. Wrangel went on the attack, came to Melitopol and took the land adjacent to the Peninsula from the North. In July reflected a new offensive of the Bolsheviks, but in September, after the war with Poland, the Communists were sent to the Crimea reinforcements.
The defeat and evacuation
The number of troops of the red army amounted to 100 thousand units of infantry and 33 thousand 600 units of cavalry. Bolshevik forces four times superior forces of the whites. Had to retreat through the isthmus of Perekop. The first attempt of the Reds to break through was stopped, but Wrangel understood that the attack will resume. It was decided to prepare for evacuation.
Within seven months of General Wrangel was at the head of the Crimea – the last stronghold of the Russian land, free from the Bolsheviks. November 7, 1920. troops under the command of Frunze broke into the Crimea. Civilians were evacuated under the guise of defense of Perekop. While holding back the onslaught of the enemy the troops of General Kutepov, Wrangell were engaged in the evacuation of the population. In the five black sea ports was organized landing on 126 ships.
For three days evacuated 146 thousand people, 70 thousand soldiers. To help the refugees who went to Turkey, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece and Romania, was set by the French battleship «Waldeck-Rousseau». Petro was in Istanbul, and then he settled in Belgrade. Led white movement émigrés, in 1924, gave up the leadership, passing it to Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich.
In August 1907 Wrangel married Olga M. Ivanenko, the daughter of the Chamberlain and the maid of honor of the Empress’s court. His wife accompanies him on the fronts, working as a nurse. By 1914 he had three children, a fourth was born later. Children of Peter Nikolaevich and Olga Mikhailovna, Elena, Natalia, Peter and Alex. The wife survived her husband for 40 years and died in 1968 in new York.
Peter N. died 25 APR 1928 in Brussels from TB infection. The family believed that he was poisoned by a secret agent of the GPU. 6 Oct 1929, his body was reburied in Belgrade in the temple of the Holy Trinity. He left pictures, notes, memoirs and memories, quotes of which can be found in the works of contemporary historians and biographers.