(biography, photos, videos) Petr Stolypin
Pyotr Stolypin: biography
Pyotr Stolypin, an outstanding reformer and statesman of the Russian Empire, which at various times was Governor of several cities, and then became the Minister of internal Affairs, and at the end of life held a post of the Prime Minister. The agrarian reform of Peter Stolypin and the law on courts-martial was for its time, if not a breakthrough, then, in any case, life-saving raft. Many decisions in the biography of Pyotr Stolypin is considered to be the most important for the end of the revolution of 1905-1907.
The identity of Peter Stolypin is characterized by its fearlessness, because in this man’s life was committed more than a dozen assassination attempts, but he did not retreat from their ideas. Many phrases have become winged Stolypin, for example, «We need a great Russia» and «will Not be intimidated!». When was Pyotr Stolypin, his noble family has existed for over 300 years. A fairly close relative of the statesman had the great Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov.
He Stolypin Petr Arkadyevich, biography which began in 1862, was born in Russia, and in the German city of Dresden, then capital of Saxony. There lived relatives of his mother Natalia Gorchakova, they have visited the mother of the future reformer. Peter had brothers Michael and Alexander, and sister, with whom he was very friendly.
The boys grew in the Moscow province, and then in the estate of the Kovno province. In the gymnasium the teachers were allocated to the wisdom of Peter and his strong-willed character. After receiving the matriculation Pyotr Stolypin briefly rested in the estate of her parents, and then went to the capital, where he became a student of natural science Department of Saint-Petersburg Imperial University. Incidentally, one of the teachers he was a famous scientist Dmitri Mendeleev. After receiving a degree in agronomy the service began Peter Stolypin of Russia.
The Activity Of Peter Stolypin
As a brilliant graduate of the University Peter Abramovich gets rank of a collegiate Secretary and does an outstanding career. For three years, Stolypin rose to the rank of titular counselor, which was an unprecedented achievement in such a short period of time. Soon he was transferred to the Ministry of internal Affairs and was appointed Chairman of the Kovno court conciliators. Perhaps modern man is necessary to explain briefly: Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was appointed actually in General position, while in the rank of captain, and even at the age of 26 years.
On 13 years of service in Kovno, as in the time of Governor in Grodno and Saratov, Stolypin paid much attention to agriculture, studied best practices in agronomy and new varieties of crops. In Grodno he was able in two days to eliminate the rebel society opened a vocational school and a special girls ‘ school. His success was noticed and was transferred to Saratov, a richer province. It was there that he found Pyotr Russo-Japanese war, following which a riot erupted in 1905, the year. The Governor personally came out to calm the crowd of rebellious countrymen. Thanks to the vigorous actions of Stolypin’s life in Saratov province gradually calmed down.
Nicholas II twice expressed my gratitude to him, and the third time was appointed Minister of the interior. Today you may think that it is a great honor. In fact, two of the predecessor in this position was brutally murdered, and Peter Arkadyevich were not eager to become the third, the more that it has been four attempt, but there was no choice. The complexity of the work lay in the fact that the main part of the composition of the State Duma was a revolutionary customized and openly opposed. Such a confrontation between the Executive and the legislature have created huge difficulties. In the end, the First State Duma was dissolved, and Stolypin began to combine his position with the position of Prime Minister.
Here the work of Peter Stolypin was again energetic. He showed himself not only a brilliant speaker, a phrase which has become a cruise, but a reformer and a fearless fighter against the revolution. Stolypin spent a number of bills that went down in history as the Stolypin agrarian reform. As Prime Minister he remained until his death which occurred as a result of another assassination attempt.
The Reforms Of Pyotr Stolypin
As Prime Minister, Stolypin Stolypin reforms began to be implemented immediately. They touched and bills, and foreign policy, and local authorities and the national question. But the dominant importance is given to the agrarian reform of Stolypin. The main idea of the Prime Minister was to motivate farmers to become private owners. If the previous form of society fettered the initiative of many hard-working people, but now Pyotr Stolypin hoped to build on a prosperous peasantry.
To implement such plans, managed to make a very favorable Bank loans for private farmers, as well as to transfer large raw state of territory in Siberia, the far East, Central Asia, the North Caucasus into private hands. The second important reform was the Council, i.e. the introduction of local authorities that have reduced impact on the policies of wealthy landowners. This reform of Pyotr Stolypin hard enough was part of life, especially in the Western regions, where residents used to rely on nobles. Opposed ideas in the legislative Council.
In the result, the Prime Minister even had to go to the ultimatum the Emperor. Nicholas II was willing to very hard to do with Stolypin, but intervened in the case, Empress Maria Feodorovna, who persuaded his son to accept the terms and conditions of the reformer. Thanks to the third industrial reform has changed the rules of hiring of workers, the duration of the working day, was introduced by insurance against illnesses and accidents and so on. Another equally important reform of Peter Stolypin was concerned with the national question.
He was a supporter of unification of the peoples of the land and offered to create a special Ministry of nationalities, which could find a compromise to satisfy the interests of each nation without demeaning their culture, traditions, history, language, religion. The Prime Minister believed that in this way it is possible to eradicate ethnic and religious hatred and to make Russia are equally attractive to a person of any nationality.
The results of the Stolypin reforms
Evaluation of Stolypin during his life, and later, professional historians have been mixed. Peter Arkadyevich were and are both ardent supporters who believe that he alone could prevent further October revolution and to save Russia from years of wars and no less ardent opponents, believe that the Prime Minister has used very brutal methods and strict and does not deserve praise. The results of the Stolypin reforms had been carefully studied for decades, and they formed the basis of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Perestroika. Stolypin’s phrase of «great Russia» is often used by modern political parties.
Many are interested in the relations of Rasputin and Stolypin. It is worth noting that they treated each other with abhorrence. Pyotr Stolypin was even prepared for the Emperor a special report about the negative influence of Rasputin on the Russian Empire, and received the famous answer: «Better a dozen Rasputin than one hysterical Empress.» However, it was at the request of Stolypin, Rasputin left not only St. Petersburg, but also Russia, going on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and returned only after the death of the famous reformer.
Married Peter Stolypin 22 years, as a student, which at that time was nonsense. Some contemporaries, Stolypin say he chased a very handsome dowry, while others argue that the guy defended the honor of the family. The fact that the wife of Peter Stolypin was the bride of his elder brother Michael, who died from wounds received in a duel with Prince Select. On his deathbed, allegedly, the brother asked Peter to take his bride to wife.
This story is legend or not, but do Stolypin married Olga Neydgardt, who was a maid of honour of Empress Maria Feodorovna, and also had a great-great-granddaughter of the great commander Alexander Suvorov. This marriage was very happy: according to contemporaries, the couple lived in perfect harmony. The couple had five daughters and one son. The only son of Pyotr Stolypin, whose name was Arkady, subsequently immigrate and become known in France as a writer-publicist.
As mentioned above, Peter Stolypin was measured ten times to no avail. Four times they tried to kill him when Peter Stolypin was Governor of Saratov, but it was less organized acts, and outbursts of aggression. But when he headed the government, the revolutionaries began to plan his murder more carefully. During the stay of the Prime Minister on the Aptekarsky island was made an in which Stolypin himself was not injured, but killed dozens of innocent people.
It was after this event, the government issued a decree on «storiesfunny» courts, who people called «Stolypin’s necktie». It meant a quick death penalty to terrorists. Several plots have been timely disclosed and is also not caused damage to the reformer. However, the 11th, committed in the autumn of 1911, to protect Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin nothing could.
He, along with the Imperial family was in Kiev on the occasion of opening the monument to Alexander II. There from a secret informant Dmitry Bogrov received a message that in the capital of Ukraine the terrorists arrived to kill Nicholas II. But really the attack has been planned Bogrov himself, and not to the Emperor, and Stolypin. And as this man trusted, he was issued a pass to the theater box, where high-ranking officials. Twice bogrov shot Stolypin, who from his wounds four days later died and was buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.