(biography, photos, videos) Karl Peter Ulrich
Peter III: biography
Emperor Peter III Fyodorovich at birth was named Karl Peter Ulrich, as the future of the Russian owner was born in the port city of Kiel, located in the North of the modern German state. On the Russian throne of Peter III lasted only six months, after which was a victim of a Palace coup by his wife Catherine II, which changed dead husband.
It is noteworthy that in the next century biography of Peter III was fed exclusively with derogatory terms, therefore, the image of Peter the Third, people have been unequivocally negative. But in recent years historians find proof that the Emperor had definite merits to the country, and a longer period of his reign would bring tangible benefits to the inhabitants of the Russian Empire.
As a boy born in the family of the Duke Karl Friedrich of Holstein-Gottorp, nephew of the Swedish king Charles XII and his wife Anna Petrovna, daughter of Tsar Peter the great, his fate was predetermined from childhood. Barely born, the child became heir to the Swedish throne, but also, in theory, could lay claim to the Russian throne, although according to the plan of his grandfather Peter I, this cannot happen. The childhood of Peter the Third was not a king. He very early lost his mother, and his father, bent on the reconquest of the lost Prussian lands, brought up her son like a soldier. In 10 years little Carl Peter was awarded the title seconds-Lieutenant, and a year later the boy was orphaned completely.
After the death of Karl Friedrich, his son was in the home of Bishop Adolf Atinska, his great-uncle, where the boy turned into an object for humiliation, cruel jokes and regularly staged spanking. On education of the crown Prince no one cared, and up to 13 years, he barely knew how to read. Carl Peter was a sickly, frail and shy, but kind and simple-minded. He loved music and painting, though because of the memories of dad loved the military. However, it is known that before his death the Emperor Peter III was afraid of the sound of cannon fire and rifle volleys. Chroniclers noted strange addiction guy to fantasies and fabrications, often turning into outright lies. There is also a version that in adolescence Karl Peter acquired a dependence on alcohol.
The life of the future Emperor of Russia changed when he was 14 years old. On the Russian throne by his aunt Elizabeth I Petrovna, who has decided to consolidate the monarchy for the descendants of his father. As Karl Peter was the only direct heir of Peter, he was summoned to St. Petersburg, where the young Peter the Third, which was already the title of Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, brought the Orthodox religion, and received the Slavic name of Prince Pyotr Fedorovich.
At the first meeting with the nephew of Elizabeth was amazed at his ignorance and was assigned to the Royal heir best tutor. The teacher noted the great mental capacity of the ward that debunks one of the myths of Peter III as «a halfwit Martinet» and «mentally handicapped».
Emperor Peter III
After the death of Elizabeth of Russia 25 December 1761 to the throne, Peter Fedorovich. Many historians believe the short period of his reign one of the worst for Russia. The main reason for this is the actual cancellation them of the outcome of the Seven years war. Peter has really developed a bad relationship with the military officers as he ended the war with Prussia and withdrew Russian troops from Berlin. Many regarded these actions as a betrayal, but in fact it guards this war brought glory or to them personally, or Austria and France, whose party supported the Patriotic army. But for the Russian Empire from the war a special sense was not.
Other interesting cases of the Emperor-to make manifest on the transformation of the state system. He, being on the throne for only six months, managed to abolish the Secret Chancery, to introduce freedom of religion, to abolish ecclesiastical supervision over the personal life of the citizens, to allow the nobles to travel abroad, to deny to give away to private property public lands and most importantly – to make a judgment of the Russian Empire open. Thus, it is possible to say that the Emperor Peter III had intended to make the Russian Empire more free, less totalitarian and more enlightened. But after the death of Peter Fedorovich all these innovations were destroyed.
When the future ruler was barely 17 years old, the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna hastened to marry him. In the couple he was elected German Princess Sophie Frederica August of that today the whole world knows under the name Catherine II. But I must say that Peter III and Catherine II each other could not stand and were considered a married couple legally. Even when his wife gave Peter the heir, Paul I, and then the daughter Anna, he joked that he does not understand how she takes these children.» The son of Peter the Third would later become the new ruler, but Anna Petrovna died in childhood.
About a complicated relationship Peter III and Catherine the Second is the fact that the Governor has repeatedly and publicly quarreled with his wife and even threatened to divorce her. Moreover, one day after his wife did not support the spoken toast them on one of the feasts, Peter III ordered to arrest her. From prison Catherine was only saved by the intervention of Peter uncle, George of Holstein-Gottorp. But we must add that Peter Fedorovich with all the aggression, anger and, most likely, burning jealousy for his wife, however, felt a great respect for her mind. In difficult situations, especially economic and financial, it is very often asked for help to Catherine. Preserved information that Peter III, Catherine II called «MS Help».
It should be noted that in the personal life of Peter III, the lack of intimate relations with Catherine had no effect. Peter F. had many lovers, chief among them was the daughter of the General Roman Vorontsov. To the court were presented to his two daughters: Catherine, who will be the best friend of the Imperial couple, and later by Princess Dashkova, and Elizabeth. Here she had the destiny to become my beloved wife and mistress of Peter III. For her sake he was willing to break the wedded marriage, but this not destined to happen.
On the throne Petr Fedorovich has been a little over six months. By the summer of 1762, by his wife Catherine II inspired one of his minions to organize a coup d’etat, which was carried out at the end of June. Peter, shocked by the betrayal of the entire environment, abdicated from the Russian throne, who never appreciated and not wanted, and had the intention to return to his native country. However, on the orders of Catherine the former Emperor was arrested and placed under lock and key under the Palace in Ropsha near St. Petersburg.
July 17, 1762, just a week later, Peter III was dead. The official cause of death was an attack of hemorrhoidal colic», aggravated by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. However, the main version of the death of the Emperor is considered a violent death at the hands of Alexei Orlov, the elder brother of Grigory Orlov — the chief at that time, the favorite of Catherine. It is believed that Orlov was strangled prisoner, although later medical examination of the corpse, nor any historical facts do not confirm this. This version relies on a «letter of repentance» Alexei, which to our time preserved only in copies, and modern scientists believe that this paper is bogus, made by Fyedor Rastopchina, the right hand of Paul the First.
After the death of the former Emperor formed a misconception about the personality and biographies of Peter III, as all the conclusions were based on the memoirs of his wife Catherine II, active participant in the conspiracy of Princess Dashkova, one of the main ideologists of the conspiracy, count Nikita Panin and his brother, count Peter Panin. That is, based on the opinion of the very people who betrayed Peter Fedorovich. And as often happens, the rumors of the death spawned a large number of impostors who call themselves «survived the king.»
Similar phenomena have been before, one can think of numerous Falsdmitry. But the number of people who have claimed to be the Emperor Peter Fedorovich has no competitors. At least forty different people turned out to be false Pyrami III, the most famous of which was Emelyan Pugachev and Stepan Small.