(biography, photos, videos) Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov
Peter I: biography
Peter, for his merits in front of Russia was nicknamed Peter the Great is a figure in Russian history is not just significant, but crucial. 1 Peter established the Russian Empire, so was the last Tsar of Russia and, respectively, the first Emperor of Russia. The son of a king, godson of the king, the king’s brother — Peter, and he was proclaimed the head of the country, and at that moment the boy was barely 10 years old. First, he had a formal co-ruler Ivan V, but with 17 years of the rules on their own, and in 1721 Peter the great became Emperor.
For Russia, the reign of Peter I there appeared the large-scale reforms. He greatly expanded the territory of the state, built the beautiful city of St. Petersburg, incredibly raised the economy, establishing a network of steel and glass factories, as well as reducing to a minimum the import of foreign goods. In addition, Peter the Great was the first Russian rulers began to adopt the Western countries their best ideas. But since all the reforms of Peter the great achieved by violence against the population and eliminate dissent of the personality of Peter 1 historians still causes a diametrically opposite assessment.
The childhood and youth of Peter
Biography of Peter I originally assumed his future reign, since he was born in the family of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov and his wife Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina. It is noteworthy that Peter the great was the 14th child of his father but the firstborn to his mother. It is also worth noting that the name Peter was totally unconventional for the two dynasties, his ancestors, therefore, historians still can’t figure out where he got that name.
The boy was only four years old when he died king’s father. Ascended the throne of his elder brother and godfather Feodor III Alexeevich, who took custody of the brother and ordered him to give as good education. However, this of Peter the First turned out to be a big problem. He was always very curious, but just at that moment, the Orthodox Church launched a war against foreign influence, and all teachers-the Latin scholar was dismissed from the court. So Prince taught Russian clerks, who themselves had deep knowledge, and a Russian-language literature of an appropriate level did not exist. In the end Peter had a poor vocabulary until the end of his life wrote with errors.
The Tsar Feodor III rules only six years and died of poor health at a young age. By tradition, the throne was occupied by another descendant of Tsar Alexey, Ivan, but it was very painful, so the family Naryshkins actually organized a coup and declared heir of Peter I. it was beneficial to Them, as the boy was a descendant of, but Naryshkin did not consider that the family of Miloslavskys rise up for the abuse of Prince Ivan. There was the famous revolt of the Streltsy in 1682, which resulted in recognition both of the two tsars, Ivan and Peter. In the Kremlin Armory still remained double throne for the brotherhood of kings.
Favorite game of young Peter I began lessons with his army. And the soldiers of the Prince was not a toy. His peers were dressed in uniforms and marched through the streets of the city, and Sam Peter would serve in his regiment as a drummer. Later he even started his own artillery, too. Toy army of Peter I was called the Preobrazhensky regiment, which was later added the Semenovsky regiment, and, besides them, the king organized a fun fleet.
Tsar Peter I
When the young king was still a minor, behind him stood an older sister, Princess Sophia, and the late mother Natalia Kirillovna and her relatives the Naryshkins. In 1689, brother, co-ruler Ivan V finally gave Peter all authority, although nominally remained with the king until suddenly died at the age of 30 years. After his mother’s death, Tsar Peter the Great has oppressed freed from the guardianship of the princes Naryshkins and that since then you can talk about Peter as an independent ruler.
He continued military action in the Crimea against the Ottoman Empire, carried out a series of the Azov campaigns, the result of which was the capture of the fortress of Azov. To strengthen the southern borders of the king built the port of Taganrog, but a full fleet of Russia still were not, therefore, final victory is achieved. Begins large-scale construction of ships and the training of young nobles abroad to the ship. And the king himself studied the art of building a fleet, even after working as a carpenter on the construction of the ship «Peter and Paul».
While Peter the Great was preparing to reform the country and personally studied the technical and economic progress of the leading European States against him was conceived a conspiracy, and at the head was the first wife of the king. Suppress the Streltsy rebellion, Peter decided to refocus military action. He concludes a peace Treaty with the Ottoman Empire and starts a war with Sweden. His forces captured the fortress of Noteburg and Nyenschantz in the mouth of the Neva, where the king decided to found the city of St. Petersburg and on the nearby island of Kronstadt put the base of the Russian fleet.
War Of Peter The Great
The above gains have allowed open access to the Baltic sea, which was later given the symbolic name «the Window to Europe». Later, Russia joined Eastern Baltic, and in 1709, during the legendary battle of Poltava the Swedes were completely defeated. Moreover, it is important to note: Peter, in contrast to many of the kings did not sit in the fortresses, and personally led troops on the battlefield. In the battle of Poltava Peter I even got shot in the hat, so he really risked his life.
After the defeat of the Swedes at Poltava, Charles XII took refuge under the protection of the Turks in the city of Bendery, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire and today is located in Moldova. With the help of the Crimean Tatars and the Zaporozhye Cossacks, he began to escalate the situation on the southern border of Russia. Seeking the expulsion of Charles, Peter, on the contrary, forced the Ottoman Sultan again to unleash the Russo-Turkish war. Russia was in a situation when you need to wage a war on three fronts. On the border with Moldova the king was surrounded and agreed to sign peace with the Turks, giving them back the fortress of Azov and access to the Azov sea.
In addition to the Russian-Turkish & great Northern war, Peter the Great raising tensions in the East. Thanks to his expeditions was founded the city of Omsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Semipalatinsk, and later joined Russia Kamchatka. The king wanted to make trips to North America and India, but to implement these ideas failed. But he had a so-called Caspian expedition to Persia, which conquered Baku, Resht, Astrabad, Derbent, and other Iranian and Caucasian fortress. But after the death of Peter the Great most of these territories were lost, as the new Board believed the region is not promising, and the maintenance of the garrison in those conditions was too expensive.
The Reforms Of Peter I
Due to the fact that the territory of Russia has increased significantly, Peter was able to reorganize the country from the Kingdom to the Empire, and starting in 1721 Peter the great became Emperor. Of the many reforms of Peter I is clearly distinguished convert in the army, which enabled him to achieve great military victories. But equally important were innovations such as the transition of the Church under obedience to the Emperor, as well as the development of industry and trade. Emperor Peter the great was aware of the need to educate and fight against the obsolete way of life. On the one hand, as the tyranny has taken its tax on beards, but at the same time, there is a direct correlation to the advancement of the nobility in the service of their education levels.
When Peter founded the first Russian newspaper appeared many translations of foreign books. Were open to artillery, engineering, medical, marine and mountain schools, as well as the country’s first gymnasium. And now secondary schools is able to attend not only the children of distinguished persons, descendants of the soldiers. He really wanted to create compulsory for all primary school but this plan did not. It is important to note that the reforms of Peter the great affected not only the economy and politics. He financed the education of talented artists, has introduced the new Julian calendar, tried to change the position of women, prohibiting forced marriage. Also raised the dignity of the citizens, obliging them not to kneel before the king and use full names and not to call myself before «the Senka» or «Ivashka».
Overall, the reforms of Peter the First changed the nobility system of values that can be considered a huge plus, but the gap between the nobility and the people increased greatly and now is not restricted to the Finance and title. The main disadvantage of Royal conversions is considered a violent method of their implementation. In fact, it was the struggle of despotism with uneducated people, and Peter hoped the whip to instil in the minds of the people. Indicative in this respect is the construction of Saint Petersburg, which was conducted in difficult conditions. Many master rushed from servitude to run, and the king ordered their entire family put in prison until the fugitives are back with guilt.
As the method of governance under Peter the great, not everybody liked the king has established a body of political investigation and trial in the Transfiguration of the order, which later evolved into the infamous Secret office. The most popular decrees in this context, there was a ban on the keeping of records in closed from outside the room, as well as the prohibition of non-information. Violation of these decrees, which were punished with the death penalty. In this way Peter the Great fought the conspiracies and Palace coups.
Personal life of Peter I
In his youth, Tsar Peter I loved to be in the German settlement, where he not only became interested in foreign life, for example, learned to dance, to smoke and chat in the Western manner, but fell in love with the German woman Anna Mons. His mother was very concerned about such relations, so upon reaching Peter’s 17th birthday, insisted on his marriage with Eudoxia Lopukhina. However, the normal family life they had: soon after the wedding, Peter left his wife and used to go to her for the sake of preventing rumors of a certain kind.
King Peter I and his wife had three sons: Alexis, Alexander and Paul, and the latter two died in childhood. The eldest son of Peter the great was to be his heir, but as Eudoxia in 1698 unsuccessfully tried to overthrow her husband from the throne for the crown gear to the son and was imprisoned in the convent, Alexei was forced to flee abroad. He never approved of the reforms of his father, considered a tyrant and was planning to overthrow his father. However, in 1717 the young man was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul fortress, and next summer a death sentence. Before the execution it did not come as soon Alexei died in prison under mysterious circumstances.
A few years after divorce from his first wife Peter took a mistress 19-year-old Martha Skavronska, which Russian troops seized as spoils of war. From the king she gave birth to eleven children, with half – even before the legal wedding. The wedding took place in February, 1712, after taking a woman of Orthodoxy, by which she became Catherine Alexeyevna, later known as Empress Catherine I. Among the children of Peter and Catherine, the future Empress Elizabeth I and Anne, the mother of Peter III, the rest died in childhood. Interestingly, the second wife of Peter the great was the only person in his life who knew how to calm his violent nature even in moments of rage and bouts of anger.
Despite the fact that his wife accompanied the Emperor in all the campaigns, he was able to get involved in the young Maria Cantemir, the daughter of the former Moldavian ruler, Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich. Mary remained a favorite of Peter the great to the end of his life. Separately worth mentioning about the growth of Peter I. Even for our contemporaries, more than two-meter man seems pretty high. But in the time of Peter I his 203 centimeters seemed absolutely incredible. According to the Chronicles of eyewitnesses, when the king and the Emperor Peter the Great walked through the crowd, his head towered over the sea of people.
The Death Of Peter I
Compared to its older brothers, born of a different mother from their common father, Peter seemed pretty healthy. But in fact, it almost all his life was tormented by severe headaches, and in the last years of the reign of Peter the great suffered from kidney stones. Attacks has even increased after the Emperor, together with the ordinary soldiers pulled the stranded boat, but he tried not to pay attention to the disease attention.
At the end of January 1725, the Governor could no longer endure the pain and laid in his Winter Palace. After the strength to shout the Emperor left, he only groaned, and the whole environment it is clear that Peter is dying. Death Peter took in terrible pain. The official cause of his death the doctors called pneumonia, but later the doctors appeared strong doubts about such a verdict. An autopsy was performed, which showed terrible inflammation of the bladder, which has grown into gangrene. Buried Peter the Great in the Cathedral at the Peter and Paul fortress in St. Petersburg, and the heir to the throne was his wife, Empress Catherine I.