(biography, photos, videos) Pavel Petrovich Romanov
Paul I: biography
Emperor Paul the First – the successor of the Royal family of the Romanovs. He is the son of Catherine II and Peter III, though because of the jokes his father on the topic «out of nowhere, his wife children» many consider the father of Paul I, the favorite of Catherine, Sergei Saltykov. Moreover, the first-born was born just after 10 years of marriage. However, because of the similarity of Paul and Peter should be viewed as a response to such rumours. The childhood of the future monarch is not happy. Because of the political struggle, the current Empress Elizabeth I Petrovna was afraid for Paul the First, shielded him from communicating with his parents and was surrounded by this army of nannies and teachers who buck to senior officials than worried about the boy.
Biography of Paul I, claims that he received the best education, which at that time was possible. In his personal were given a large library of academician Korff. Teachers taught the heir to the throne not only to the usual Law of God, foreign languages, dancing and fencing, but also painting, as well as history, geography, arithmetic, and even astronomy. Interestingly, none of the lessons was not nothing to do with the military, but inquisitive teenager he began to get involved in this science and have mastered it at a high enough level.
When Catherine II came to the throne, she allegedly signed a pledge to pass on to his son Paul I’s reign when he reaches adulthood. To us, this document is not reached it is possible that the Empress destroyed the paper, and maybe it’s just a legend. But it is such a statement always referred to all unhappy reign of the «iron nemki» rebels, including Pugachev. In addition, there was talk that on her deathbed Elizabeth was intended to pass the crown to her grandson Paul I, not the nephew of Peter III, but the corresponding decree was published on the biography of Paul I, the solution is not affected.
Paul First sat on the throne of the Russian Empire at the age of 42 years. During the coronation, he announced changes in the succession to the throne: now rule Russia could only men, and the crown passed only from father to son. This Paul unsuccessfully hoped to prevent the recent increase in Palace coups. By the way, for the first time in the history of the procedure of the coronation took place simultaneously and for the Emperor and Empress.
Disgusting relationship with her mother led to the fact that Paul I chose the method of leadership in fact, the juxtaposition of their decisions previous. As if «evil» to the memory of Catherine, Paul First returned to freedom for imprisoned radicals, reformed the army and began to struggle with serfdom.
But all these ideas didn’t lead to anything good. The liberation of radicals after many years will respond in the form of the Decembrist uprising, the decline of serfdom remained only on paper, and the fight against corruption in the army turned into a series of reprisals. And dissatisfied with the Emperor remained as the higher ranks, who one by one lost their posts, and simple soldiers. They have caused a murmur new uniforms modeled on the Prussian army, which was incredibly uncomfortable. In foreign policy, Paul First became famous for wrestling with the ideas of the French revolution. He introduced strict censorship in publishing, was prohibited French books, French fashion, including the round cap.
During the reign of Paul I with commander Alexander Suvorov, the Vice-Admiral Fyodor Ushakov Russian army and Navy have done a lot of remarkable victories, in cooperation with the Prussian and Austrian troops. But later Paul I showed his fickle nature, broke off relations with allies and concluded an Alliance with Napoleon. In Bonaparte, the Emperor of Russia saw the force that can stop the anti-monarchist revolution. But he was wrong strategically: Napoleon was not a winner even after the death of Paul the First, but because of his decision and arranged the economic blockade of Britain, Russia lost its largest market, which greatly affected the standard of living in the Russian Empire.
Officially Paul I was married twice. His first wife, Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna, by birth was a German Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Darmstadt. She died two years later after the wedding in childbirth. The first son of Paul I was born dead. In the same year, the future Emperor married again. The wife of Paul I Maria Fyodorovna, before marriage was called Sophia Maria Dorothea of Württemberg, and it is destined to become the mother of two rulers, Alexander I and Nicholas I.
It is interesting that this marriage was not just profitable for the state, Paul was really into this girl. As he wrote to his family: «this blonde with nice face captivated the widower». Only in Union with Maria Feodorovna to the Emperor were born 10 children. In addition to the above two rulers worth noting, and Mikhail Pavlovich, who founded the first Russian Artillery school in St. Petersburg. By the way, he is the only child that was born during the reign of Paul the First.
But love to wife did not prevent Pavel the First to go by the generally accepted rules and make themselves the favorites. Two of them, the ladies of Sofia Ushakova St. George and Maura even gave birth to the Emperor’s illegitimate children. Also worth noting is Catherine Nelidova, which had a huge influence on the Emperor and it is believed that she was trying to run the country by the hands of a loved one. Personal life of Paul I and Catherine Nelidova was more intellectual than sensual in nature. In it the Emperor implemented his ideas of romantic chivalry.
When close to the court realized how the increased power of this woman, they made a «replacement» mistress of Paul I. His new lady love was Anna Lopukhina, but Nelidova was forced to go to the castle Lod ,on the territory of Estonia. Interestingly, Lopukhin was not happy with this situation, the hardships of status of a mistress of the ruler of Paul I, his «chivalric» manifestations of attention and was annoyed that this relationship is overt.
Within a few years of the reign of Paul the First, despite the change in the inheritance, was organized against him at least three conspiracy, the last of which was successful. Almost a dozen officers, commanders of the famous regiments, and statesmen of the night on 24 March 1801, entered the bedroom of the Emperor in the Mikhailovsky castle, and committed the murder of Paul I. the Official cause of his death is called a stroke. It should be noted that the nobles and ordinary people were met by the lime of the death with a bad tear with joy.
The perception of Paul’s First and subsequent generations of mixed. Some historians, particularly during the reign of his successor Alexander I, and later in the Soviet time, created the image of the tyrant and the tyrant. Even the poet Alexander Pushkin in the ode «Liberty» called him «crowned with the villain.» Others try to emphasize a heightened sense of justice Paul First called it «the only romantic on the throne» and «Russian hamlet». The Orthodox Church even at one time considered the possibility to canonize the man. Today it is accepted that Paul First does not fit in any known ideology.