(biography, photo, video) Joseph Mandelstam
Osip Mandelstam: biography
In Warsaw on 3 January 1891 in a Jewish family was born a boy. It was called Joseph, but later he changed the name to «Osip». Father Emil Mandelstam was a master glove cases, first-Guild merchant. It gave him the advantage to live outside the pale. Mother,flora Evseevna was a musician. She had a great influence on his son. At maturity Mandelstam will perceive the art of poetry is akin to music.
After 6 years they travelled from Warsaw to St. Petersburg. Osip enters the Tenishev school and studied there from 1900 to 1907. This school is called «forge cultural frames» of the early XX century.
In 1908, Osip went to Paris to study at the Sorbonne. There he spends two years. Met Mandelstam to Gumilev, is passionate about French poetry and epic. He read Francois Villon, Baudelaire and Verlaine. And in between trips to Paris, visits in St. Petersburg poetic lectures of Vyacheslav Ivanov, learning the wisdom of poetry.
In 1911, Emil Mandelshtam experiencing financial difficulties, so hoarse you can no longer study in Europe. For admission to the University of Petersburg, he was baptized a Protestant pastor. From this year until 1917 lasts with interruptions of his training in the Roman-Germanic branch of history and Philology. He learns not very hard and a diploma and have not received.
Meanwhile, it often happens in the house ENU, acquainted with Anna Akhmatova. Subsequently a friendship with them, he believes one of the biggest successes in life. His works were published in the journal Apollon in 1910 and continues in the magazines giperborey and «New Satyricon».
In 1912, recognizes the Unit and shows sympathy for the acmeists, adding to their group. Becomes a participant in the meeting «Workshop of poets»
The debut book by Osip Mandelstam called «Stone» and Pereyaslavets three times in 1913, 1916 and 1923 with different content. At that time, he has significant poetic life, being in the middle of it. Reading his poems Osip Mandelstam, it was possible to hear often in the literary-artistic cabaret «stray dog». The period of the «Stone» is serious, heavy, «strictly turchesca», but the ease of presentation, reminiscent of Verlaine.
After the revolution, the poet comes to fame, he actively printed. collaborates with the newspaper «people’s Commissariat of education» and travels around the country, speaking with poetry. During the civil war he had the chance to run with the whites in Turkey, but he chose to stay in Soviet Russia.
The mournful Elegy of his second book, «Tristia» in 1922 — is the fruit of experienced unrest caused by the revolution and the First World war. The face of the poetics of the period «Triste» — fragmentary and ironic, is the poetics of the Association.
From 1925 to 1930 Mandelstam takes a poetic pause. For a living it basically transfers. Writes prose. In 1928, the last available sonic poet «Poems» and a collection of articles «On poetry».
In 1930, he travels through the Caucasus. In Erevane he meets a scientist Boris Kuzin, who made the poet a big impact. And although Mandelstam almost never published, he writes a lot in these years. He published his article «Journey to Armenia».
In the 30-ies begins the third period of Mandelstam’s poetics, which is the art of metaphorical cipher.
In 1919 In Kiev Osip Mandelstam falls in love with Nadezhda Yakovlevna Khazin. She was born in 1899, in Saratov, in a Jewish family that adopted Christianity. At the time of the meeting with Nadezhda Mandelshtam had a great education. They met in the cafe «G. L. A. M». Everyone was talking about them as obviously in love couple. Writer Deitch in memoirs, Hope walked in with a bouquet of water lilies next to the Osip.
Together with Mandelstam Khazin wanders around Russia, Ukraine, Georgia during the civil war. In 1922 they were married.
She won’t leave him and in the years of persecution, drove him into exile.
Arrest and death
In 1933, in the words of Pasternak, Mandelstam actually commits the act of suicide, reading the anti-Stalin epigram in public. With half a dozen people, there were those who told of the poet.
On the night of 14 may 1934, he was subjected to arrest and subsequent exile in Cherdyn in Perm region. There, despite the support of his wife, he makes a real attempt suicide by jumping out the window. Nadezhda Mandelstam is looking for ways to save her husband and writes in all instances, friends and acquaintances. They are allowed to move to Voronezh. There in poverty, they live until 1937. After the exile, returned to Moscow.
Meanwhile, «the question of Mandelstam» is not yet closed. Discussed on the level of people’s Commissar of internal Affairs of the Union of writers of poems, called «well-wishers» obscene and defamatory. The clouds thickened, and in 1938 he was again arrested and sent to the phase in the far East.
27 Dec 1938 poet did not. He died of typhoid fever, and together with other unhappy buried in a mass grave. The burial place of Mandelstam unknown.