(biography, photos, videos) Rolihlahla Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela: a biography
Nelson Mandela was born in the village Mvezo located on the left Bank of the river Mbashe in South Africa. His father Gadla Henry Mandela at the time of the birth of the son of the head of the village and was a member of the Privy Council Tembe tribe. His mother, Nongame Nosekeni was third wife Hadley, which simultaneously had 4 wives. But Nelson’s father had another 3 sons and 9 daughters.
Interestingly, at birth the boy was named Holila, which can be translated as «Naughty». But when he was the first of Mandela’s children the elder went to school, English teacher according to tradition, gave all the students English names. It appeared the name of Nelson Mandela.
After a few years the family moved to another village – Chunu. It happened because of the displacement of the father of the new colonial government from the post of Chairman Mvezo. Gadla Mandela took hard the news, due to experiences undermined his health and died when Nelson was only 9 years old.
After elementary school, Nelson Mandela graduated high school-internat Clarkberg, then studied at the Methodist College in Fort Beaufort. In this school Nelson loved sports, especially running and Boxing, which gave preference to the end of life.
At the age of 21 years, was enrolled as a student at the University of Fort hare, while a black resident with a diploma of higher education at that time was a rarity. But there Mandela studied only for a year. He left the University through participation in the boycott of the students who disagree with the results of the election in the student representative Council.
In 1941 dropouts Mandela moved to the largest city in South Africa – Johannesburg, where he finds work as a watchman at the mine, and later as a Junior clerk in one of the law firms. While working as a lawyer, Nelson Mandela, in absentia finishes South African University and received the degree of bachelor of arts. Immediately after this, he entered the University of the Witwatersrand’s law faculty, where he meets Joe the Word, and Harry Schwartz, the future Ministers of his government.
The beginning of a political struggle
As a student, Nelson Mandela strongly interested in politics. It is influenced by radical Africanists ideas. He regularly takes part in the collection of the black intellectuals of the African national Congress and appears at rallies and protests, supporting the local population.
In 1948, power in South Africa comes the national party of the Afrikaners and the main development strategy of the state is the policy of apartheid. Nelson Mandela became chief Secretary and later the President of the Youth League of the African national Congress. He organizes a Campaign of disobedience to the authorities, and in 1955, convenes a Congress of a free people. His help to people was not only in political disagreement. Mandela created the first law office, which provides free services black, is a list of principles of the future democratic society of South Africa «the freedom Charter», which will be the main document for non-violent struggle against the apartheid regime.
But in the early 60-ies of Nelson Mandela, having failed by peaceful means, creates a radical organization «Umkhonto ve Sizwe», which allows for the possibility of armed struggle. Together with the team members they organize the bombings of governmental and military facilities. Later, their fight goes into the category of guerrilla. But in the autumn of 1962, Mandela is brought before a court is sentenced to imprisonment for 5 years for organizing riots and illegal border crossing. Later, because of the additional charges, the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.
Prison and presidency
Nelson Mandela was in prison for 27 years. As a political prisoner he was the worst conditions and the least amount of privileges. For example, he was allowed to write only one letter or make one phone call in six months. However, thanks to the support rest on the will of friends, it was during this period he managed to become a world celebrity. The press in most States, published slogans like the famous «free Nelson Mandela». In addition, the dark-skinned fighter for justice, while in custody, managed to finish in absentia University of London and get a bachelor’s degree in legal Sciences. In 1981 it even while still in prison, claimed the position of honorary President of the University, but lost the election.
Since the mid 80-ies, the government is trying to find a compromise in relations with Mandela. He is offered freedom in exchange for refusing to fight against apartheid. Nelson rejects this proposal. Only in 1989, when the President of the country is Frederik Willem de Klerk, the government canceled the ban of the African national Congress. In a year Nelson Mandela and his supporters were acquitted in court and released.
Despite the dismissal, the attitude of Mandela and de Klerk were very tense. Didn’t bring them together and receiving a joint Nobel prize. The fact that Nelson Mandela immediately after his release from prison began a strong fight against the government, which was accompanied by attacks and clashes. However, in most of these explosions and collisions Mandela accused the government. However, his efforts have led to the fact that in 1994 was conducted the first ever South African democratic elections and the African national Congress, with 62% of the vote, Mandela became the first black President of South Africa.
For 5 years of his reign, the new President has achieved free health care for children and pregnant women, free compulsory education for children up to 14 years, introduced equality in benefits, increased subsidies for the maintenance of rural residents have entered the land laws, labor relations, qualifications of employees, on equality in employment and many others. Under the government of Mandela in the country was carried out large-scale work on installation of telephones, electrification, construction of hospitals, clinics and homes.
After retirement in 1999, Nelson Mandela became an active fighter against the spread of AIDS, has achieved a more open light of the problems of this disease in South Africa, which still is a sad leader in the number of deaths from the plague of the 20th century.
Nelson Mandela was married three times. The first marriage, he, at the insistence of his guardian concluded in 1944, with Evelyn Makaziwe. In this marriage they had sons Madiba Thembekile and Magkano Lewanika and daughter Pumla of Makaziwe and Makaziwe Mandela, who died at 9 months of age. This marriage ended in 1958.
Immediately after the divorce, Nelson married Winnie Dlamini, who bore him two daughters, Zenani and Zindzi. Officially they divorced in 1994, but actually broke up, when Mandela was in prison.
The last marriage of Nelson Mandela took place in 1998, when he signed with Graça Machel, a well-known politician. Graça was with him until the last days of life.
Children gave Nelson 17 grandchildren and 14 great-grandchildren.
Nelson Mandela is known for a number of publications, which was popular among all who is interested in politics and social activities. The most famous autobiography, «Long walk to freedom» speech «I am prepared to die», which was uttered in the court room on 20 April 1964. Also known collection of archival records, letters from prison «Conversation with myself» and the book of revelation «the Struggle is my life».
In early summer 2013, Nelson was in the hospital due to recovery of old lung disease, where he remained until mid-September. For a long time, his condition was assessed as stable is critical. But in November, the health had further deteriorated, and Mandela is connected to the respirator. However, despite all efforts of doctors, the former President on 5 December 2013 died at the age of 95 years.
Within 3 days the movement in the capital Pretoria has been stopped, so as to bid farewell to a fighter against apartheid came a crowd of thousands of citizens, lined up in a long queue.
The official funeral of Nelson Mandela was held on 15 December 2013 in the village Chuno, which has grown in the leader of the South African people.