(biography, photos, videos) Alex Peshkov
Maxim Gorky: biography
Alexey Peshkov, better known as the writer Maxim Gorky, Russian and Soviet literature an iconic figure. He was five times nominated for the Nobel prize, was published by the Soviet author during the whole of the Soviet Union and was considered on a par with Alexander Pushkin and Leo Tolstoy, the main Creator of Russian literary art.
He was born in Kanavino, which in those days was located in the Nizhny Novgorod region, and now is one of districts of Nizhny Novgorod. His father, Maksim Peshkov, was a carpenter, and in his last years ran a steamship office. Mother Varvara Vasilyevna died of consumption, so Alyosha Peshkov parents replaced grandmother Akulina Ivanovna. 11 years old boy was forced to work: Maxim Gorky was a messenger in the shop, a bartender on the steamer, a Baker’s helper and painter. Biography of Maxim Gorky reflected personally in the novels «Childhood», «people» and «My universities».
After unsuccessful attempts to become a student of Kazan University and the arrest of the Marxist circle of the future writer became a watchman on the railroad. And at 23, the young man sets off to travel around the country and managed to reach the Caucasus. It was during this travel Maxim Gorky jot their thoughts, which will later be the basis for his future works. By the way, the first stories of Maxim Gorky began to be issued around that time.
After becoming a famous writer Alexei Peshkov leaves for the United States, then moved to Italy. This happened not because of problems with the authorities, as is sometimes present some sources, because of changes in family life. Although Bitter and abroad continues to revolutionary to write books. In Russia, he returned in 1913, he settled in St. Petersburg and began to work for various publishers.
Interestingly, when all the Marxist views the October revolution, a protest took rather skeptical. After the Civil war, Maxim Gorky, who had some disagreements with the new government, again going abroad, but in 1932, finally returns home.
The first published stories by Maxim Gorky became a famous «Makar Chudra», which was released in 1892. A famous writer brought two volumes of «Essays and stories». Interestingly, the circulation of these volumes were almost three times higher than usually adopted in those years. Of the most popular pieces of the period worth noting is the story «old Woman izergil», «beens», «Chelkash», «Twenty-six and one» and the poem «song of the Falcon». Another poem «Song of the stormy Petrel» has become a textbook. A lot of the time, Maxim Gorky was paid to children’s literature. He wrote a number of fairy tales, such as «Vorobishko», «Samovar», «Tales about Italy», published first in the Soviet Union, special children magazine and provided holidays for children from poor families.
Very important for the understanding of the writer of the play by Maxim Gorky «the lower depths», «Philistines» and «Yegor Bulychev and others», in which he reveals the talent of the playwright and describes how he sees the life around him. Great cultural significance for Russian literature have the story «Childhood» and «the people» social novels «Mother» and «Artamonova». The latest work of bitter is the novel-epopee «Life of Klim Samgin», which has the second name of «Forty years.» On the manuscript the writer has worked for 11 years, but never managed to finish.
Personal life of Maxim Gorky was rather rough. Officially the first and only time he married at the age of 28. With his wife Catherine Volgenau the young man met the publishing house «the Samara newspaper», where she worked as a proofreader. A year after the wedding, the family got their son Maxim, and soon a daughter Catherine, named after his mother. Also on the education of the writer was his godson Zinovy Sverdlov, who later took the surname Peshkov.
But love is bitter quickly evaporated. He was burdened by family life, and their marriage with Catherine Volgenau turned into a parent Union: they lived together solely for the children. When the little daughter Katya suddenly died, this tragic event became the impetus for the rupture of family ties. However, Maxim Gorky and his wife until the end of life remained friends and maintained a correspondence.
After breaking up with his wife Maxim Gorky with the help of Anton Chekhov met an actress And theatre Maria Andreeva, who became his actual wife for the next 16 years. Because of her work the writer went to America and Italy. From a previous relationship, the actress left a daughter Catherine and son Andrew, upbringing which involved the Maxim Peshkov-Gorky. But after the revolution Andreeva became interested in the work of the party, became less attention to the family, so in 1919 came to an end and this relationship.
The point raised in Gorky, saying that goes to Maria Budberg, Baroness of the former and part of his Secretary. This woman and the writer lived for 13 years. Marriage, like previous ones, was unregistered. Latest Maxim Gorkiy was 24 years younger than him, and all the friends was aware that she was «having an affair on the side. One of the wife’s lovers Gorky was an English science fiction writer H. G. wells, to whom she went immediately after the death of the actual husband. There is a huge possibility that Maria Budberg, who had a reputation as an adventuress and is uniquely collaborated with the NKVD, it could be a double agent and work for British intelligence.
After his final return to his homeland in 1932, Maxim Gorky works in publishing of Newspapers and magazines, creating a series of books «History of factories and plants», «the Library of the poet», «history of the civil war,» organizes and holds the First all-Union Congress of Soviet writers. After the unexpected death of his son from pneumonia a writer has waned. The next time you visit the grave of Maxim he had a very bad cold. Three weeks of bitter was fever, which led to the death of 18 June 1936. The body of the Soviet writer was cremated and the ashes placed in the Kremlin wall on red square. But pre-brain Maxim Gorky accepted and transferred to the research Institute for further study.
Later, several times raised the question of what the legendary writer and his son may have been poisoned. In this case were the people’s Commissar Genrikh Yagoda, who was the lover of the wife of Maxim Peshkov. Was also suspected of involvement in Leon Trotsky, and even of Joseph Stalin. At the time of repression and considering the famous «doctors ‘ case», the three doctors were charged including the death of Maxim Gorky.
Books By Maxim Gorky
- 1899 — » Thomas Gordeyev
- 1902 — At the bottom
- 1906 — Mother
- 1908 — » the Life of the junk man
- 1914 — Childhood
- 1916 — people
- 1923 — » My universities
- 1925 — » The Thing Artamonova
- 1931 — » Yegor Bulychov and other
- 1936, The Life Of Klim Samgin