(biography, photos, videos) Marina Tsvetaeva
Marina Tsvetaeva: a biography
Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva — Russian poet, translator and author of the biographical essays and critical articles. It is considered one of the key figures in world poetry of the XX century. Call today textbook poems of Marina Tsvetaeva about love as «pilloried…», «Not an impostor – I came home…», «only Yesterday in the eyes looked…» and many others.
The birthday of Marina Tsvetaeva falls on the Orthodox holiday in memory of the Apostle John the theologian. This circumstance the poet repeatedly late will reflect in their works. The girl was born in Moscow, in the family of a Professor of the Moscow University, a famous philologist and art historian Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev and his second wife, Mary Mein, a professional pianist, a student of Nikolay Rubinstein. Patronymic Marina was half-brother Andrew and sister, and mother’s younger sister Anastasia. Creative parents ‘ occupations left its mark on my childhood Tsvetaeva. Mother taught her to play the piano and I wanted to see the daughter of a musician, and his father instilled a love of quality literature and foreign languages.
It so happened that Marina and her mother often lived abroad, so was fluent not only in Russian but also in French and German. Moreover, when little six-year old Marina Tsvetaeva began writing poetry, it was all three, and most French. Education, future famous poet and began to receive in Moscow a private girls ‘ school, and later went to boarding school for boys in Switzerland and Germany. At 16, she tried to attend a course of lectures on old French literature at the Sorbonne in Paris, but his studies there not finished.
When the poetess Tsvetaeva began publishing his poems, she became close with a circle of Moscow symbolists and actively participate in the life of the literary circles and studios in the publishing house «Musaget». Soon the Civil war begins. These years a very heavy toll on the morale of the young woman. The gap of the Fatherland on the red and white components, it did not take and did not approve. In the spring of 1922 Marina Olegovna seeking permission to emigrate from Russia and to go to the Czech Republic, where a few years ago fled her husband, Sergei Efron, he served in the White army, and now he studied at the Prague University.
For a long time the life of Marina Tsvetaeva was due not only to Prague but also Berlin, and three years later her family was able to get to the French capital. But there was happiness, the woman is not found. It was depressing hearing people that her husband was involved in a conspiracy against the son of Leon Trotsky and that he was recruited by Soviet authorities. In addition, Marina realized that in spirit she is not an immigrant, and Russia did not let her thoughts and heart.
The first collection of Marina Tsvetaeva called «Evening album» saw the light in 1910. It basically consisted of her works written during his school years. Pretty quickly the work of the young poet attracted the attention of famous writers, especially she decided to become Maximilian Voloshin, husband of Anna Akhmatova, Nikolai Gumilev, the founder of Russian symbolism Valery Bryusov. After the success of Marina writes the first prose article, «Magic in the poetry of Bryusov». By the way, quite remarkable is the fact that the first book she published with my own money.
Soon he was issued a «Magic lantern» of Marina Tsvetaeva, her second poetry collection, then turned, and the following work — «two books.» Shortly before the revolution a biography of Marina Tsvetaeva was associated with the city of Alexandria, where she arrived to visit her sister Anastasia and her husband. From the point of view of creativity this period is important because it is saturated with dedications to loved ones and favorite places and was later named by the specialists of «Alexander in the summer of Marina Tsvetaeva». It was then that the woman made famous cycles of poems «To Anna Akhmatova» and «Poems about Moscow».
During the civil war, the Marina was filled with compassion for the white movement, although, as mentioned above, in General, did not approve of the division of the country into a conditional color. In the period she writes poems «Swan mill» as well as great poem «the Tsar maiden», «Yegorushka», «the red horse» and a romantic play. After moving abroad, the poet is two large-scale works — «Poem of the Mountain» and «Poem of the End», which will be among her main works. But most poems of the period of exile was not published. Last printed the book «After Russia», which included works of Marina Tsvetaeva until 1925. Although the writing it never stopped never.
Foreigners are much more appreciated the prose Tsvetaeva – her memories of Russian poets Andrew White, Maximilian Voloshin, Mikhail Kuzmin, the book «My Pushkin», «Mother and music», «the House at Old Pimen» and others. But the poems did not buy, although Marina has written a wonderful series «Mayakovsky», «black Muse» which was the suicide of the Soviet poet. Death of Vladimir literally shook the woman and after many years can be felt, reading these poems of Marina Tsvetaeva.
With her future husband Sergei Efron poet met in 1911 at a friend’s house of Maximilian Voloshin in Koktebel. Six months later, they became husband and wife, and soon was born their eldest daughter Ariadne. But Marina was a woman very exciting, and at different times her heart was in possession of other men. For example, the great Russian poet Boris Pasternak, with whom Tsvetaeva was almost 10-year relationship, did not stop after her emigration.
In addition, in Prague, the poet began a torrid affair with a lawyer and sculptor Konstantin Rodzevich. Their relationship lasted about six months, and then Marina, dedicated to the beloved frantic passion and unearthly love «Poem mountain», volunteered to help the bride to choose wedding dress, thus putting an end to a love relationship.
But the personal life of Marina Tsvetaeva was connected not only with men. Even before the exile, in 1914 she met in the literary circle with the poetess and translator Sophia Parnok. Ladies quickly showed sympathy to each other, which soon grew into something more. Marina is dedicated to the beloved a cycle of poems «a Friend», then their relationship out of the shadows. Efron knew about the affair his wife, was very jealous, made a scene, and Tsvetaeva was forced to leave him to Sofia. However, in 1916, she divorces Parnok, returned to her husband and a year later giving birth to daughter Irina. Its strange when the poet would say later, that loving a woman a woman wildly, but only one man is boring. However, the love of Parnok, Marina described as «the first catastrophe in his life.»
After the birth of her second daughter Marina Tsvetaeva faces with a black stripe in life. Revolution, the flight of her husband abroad, an extreme lack of hunger. Very ill eldest daughter Ariadne, and Tsvetaeva gives children in the suburban village Kontsovo. Ariadna recovered, but fell ill and three died Irina.
Later, after reuniting with her husband in Prague, the poet gave birth to her third child, a son George, whom the family called «Moore». The boy was sickly and fragile, however, during the Second world war went to the front, where he died in the summer of 1944. Buried Georgy Efron in a mass grave in the Vitebsk region. Due to the fact that neither Ariadne nor George, had their own children, today the direct descendants of the great poet Tsvetaeva does not exist.
In exile, Marina and her family lived almost in poverty. Tsvetaeva’s husband was unable to work because of illness, George was a tiny baby, Ariadne tried to help financially, embroidering hats, but in fact their income was meager fees for articles and essays that wrote Marina Tsvetaeva. She called the financial situation a slow death from starvation. Therefore, all family members are constantly turning to the Soviet Embassy asking to return home.
In 1937 qualify Ariadne, after six months in Moscow secretly moved Sergei Efron, as in France, he was threatened with arrest as an accessory to an assassination. After some time officially crosses the border of Marina herself with her son. But the return turned into tragedy. Very soon arrested by the NKVD daughter, and her husband Tsvetaeva. And if Ariadne after Stalin’s death, after serving for more than 15 years, was rehabilitated, Efron was shot in October 1941.
However, his wife did not know about it. When the Great Patriotic war, a woman with a teenage son went to the evacuation in the town of Elabuga on the Kama river. To obtain a temporary residence permit, a poet forced to get a job as a dishwasher. Her statement dated August 28, 1941, and three days later, Tsvetaeva committed suicide by hanging herself in the house where they with George determined to wait. Marina left three suicide notes. One of them is addressed to his son and asked to forgive, and the other two appealed to the people to take care of him.
It is interesting that when Marina Tsvetaeva were going to evacuate, pack things helped her longtime friend, Boris Pasternak, which I bought specifically for binding ropes of things. The man boasted that he had received such a strong rope, and «though be hung up»… it was the gun suicides of Marina Ivanovna. Tsvetaeva was buried in Yelabuga, but as the war went on, the exact place of burial remains unknown until now. The Orthodox customs are not allowed to bury a suicide, but the ruling Bishop can make an exception. And Patriarch Alexy II in 1991, on the 50th anniversary since the death of the have exercised this right. Church ceremony held in the Moscow Church of the ascension at Nikitsky gate.
In memory of the great Russian poet was opened in the Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva, and not one. There is such a house of memory in the cities of Tarus, Queens, Ivanov, Feodosiya and many other places. On the banks of the Oka river, a monument by Boris Messerer. There are sculptural monuments in other cities of Russia, CIS and far abroad.
- 1910 — Evening album
- 1912 — the Magic lantern
- 1913 — » of the two books
- 1920 — King-girl
- 1921 — Swan mill
- 1923 — Psyche. Romance
- 1924 — Poem Of The Mountain
- 1924 — Poem Of The End
- 1928 — After Russia
- 1930 — Siberia