False Dmitry I
(biography, photos, videos) Dmitry Ivanovich Rurikovich
False Dmitry I: biography
Biography of false Dmitry I differs from most other primarily by the fact that until the end remains unclear the figure of this man. He convinced everyone that is a descendant of Ivan the terrible, but later was recognized as an impostor. The official date of birth of that person coincides with the birthday of Tsarevich Dmitry, whereas according to other sources the years of false and real son of the king are not the same. The same applies to theories about the place of birth: he claimed that came to light in Moscow, in line with his legend, while the whistleblowers were assured, though originally false Dmitry the pretender from Warsaw. I should add that the Tsar false Dmitry 1 was the first of three different people that called themselves survivors of the Prince.
It is quite natural that the biography of falsdmitry 1 directly associated with the death of the young Tsarevich Dmitry. The boy died under mysterious circumstances at the age of eight. Officially his death was ruled an accident, but the mother thought otherwise, and called the names of high-ranking murderers, which gave the possibility of further stories to tie together Boris Godunov, false Dmitry and Vasily Shuisky. The first of them considered the customer of murder of the heir to the throne, the third conducted an investigation and declared the death accidental, and the false Dmitry took advantage of the circumstances and the rumours that circulated in Russia, that the Prince escaped and ran away.
The Identity Of The False Dmitry I
The origin of man, that called himself king Dmitry, remains unknown, and is unlikely to have survived historical data can help to establish his identity. However, there are many versions of who occupied the throne during falsdmitry 1. One of the main candidates was and still is Grigory otrepyev, the son of the Galician boyar, who from childhood had been a slave of the Romanovs. Later, Gregory became a monk and wandered in the monasteries. The question is, why False Dmitri began to consider Otrepiev.
First, he is too much interested in the murder of the Prince, and suddenly began to learn the rules and etiquette of court life. Second, the escape of the monk Grigory Otrepiev from the Holy monastery suspiciously exactly coincides with the first mention of the campaign of false Dmitry. And third, during the reign of falsdmitry 1 the king wrote with characteristic mistakes, which were identical to the standard errors of the monastic scribe Otrepiev.
According to another version, Gregory himself was posing as the false Dmitry, and found suitable in appearance and education of youth. This person could be the illegitimate son of the Polish king Stefan Batory. In favor of this hypothesis is too casual impostor possession of cold weapons, horse riding, shooting, dancing, and most importantly – fluency in the Polish language. Against this hypothesis stands the testimony of Stefan Batory, who during his life has publicly admitted it has no children. The second concern derives from the fact that supposedly grew up in a Catholic environment, the boy favored Orthodoxy.
Not entirely ruled out the possibility of «truth», i.e., that the false Dmitriy was actually the son of Ivan the terrible, hidden and smuggled to Poland. The basis of this hypothesis is not popular rumors that along with the death of the baby disappeared his peers Istomin, who lived in chambers. Allegedly killed that baby under the guise of a Prince, and the heir to hid. An additional argument for this version is considered an important fact: not only that, Queen Martha has publicly acknowledged the false Dmitry in his son, and besides, she never served in the Church Requiem service for the deceased child.
In any case, it is noteworthy that the false Dmitry I, an impostor can not think almost all scientists agree: he sincerely believed in his involvement with the Royal family.
The Reign Of False Dmitry I
In 1604, carried out a campaign of false Dmitry i in Moscow. Incidentally, many believed he is the direct heir to the throne, so most of the towns surrendered without a fight. In the capital, the pretender to the throne came after the death of Boris Godunov, and sat on the throne, his son Fyodor II Godunov, who reigned for only 18 days until the approach of the troops of the false Dmitry was killed.
Rules Dmitrii briefly, although not as much as its predecessor. Almost immediately after his departure, there was talk of imposture. Those who yesterday supported the campaign of the false Dmitry, got mad at how freely he turns to the Treasury, spending Russian money on the Polish and Lithuanian gentry. On the other hand, the newly appointed Tsar false Dmitry I did not fulfill the promise to give the poles a number of Russian cities and to introduce in Russia to Catholicism, which, in fact, the Polish government and began to support him in the struggle for the throne. For 11 months of that First false Dmitry was the head of Russia, he had some plots and about a dozen attempts.
The Policy Of False Dmitry I
The first actions of the Tsar false Dmitry I became many favors. He returned from exile nobles, exiled from Moscow in the predecessors, doubled salary for servicemen, landowners increased land, abolished taxes in the South. But since the Treasury is only emptied, the Tsar false Dmitry I increased charges in other regions. Began to grow the riots that Dmitry refused to put out power, but instead allowed the peasants to change landlords, that if they are not feeding. Thus, the policy of false Dmitry I, was built on generosity and charity to his subjects. By the way, he hated flattery, which changed a large part of the entourage.
Many were surprised that the Tsar false Dmitry I broke earlier tradition. He did not go to sleep after lunch, eradicated the pathetic behavior at court, often went to the city and personally spoke with the common people. False Dmitry I was very active in all things and each day of negotiations. The reign of false Dmitry can be called innovative not only for Russia but also for Europe of those times. For example, it is incredibly simplified the journey on the territory of the state for foreigners, and the Russian false Dmitriy abroad called free country.
But if the domestic policy of false Dmitry I, was built on grace, in the outside he immediately began to prepare for war with the Turks to conquer the basics and capture the mouth of the don. He personally undertook to teach shooters to be controlled with the new models of guns and participated in training assaults along with the soldiers. For a successful war the king wanted to make an Alliance with the Western countries, but was refused as it did not fulfill the promise. In General, the policy of false Dmitry I, it seems to be based on healthy soil, the result carried only the ruin.
Married false Dmitriy I was at Marina mniszech, daughter of Polish voivode, which, apparently, was aware of the imposture to the wife, but wanted to become Queen. Although she lived only one week: the couple married shortly before his death. By the way, Mniszek was the first woman to be crowned in Russia, and next became Catherine II. False Dmitriy I’s wife apparently loved, as preserved written evidence as he was warming up to her at the meeting. But this certainly was not mutual. Shortly after her husband’s death, Marina went to live with a man who is now called False Dmitry II, and gave his first husband.
In General, the false Dmitry I was very susceptible to female affection. During his short reign, virtually all daughters and wives of the boyars automatically become concubines. But the main favorite before the arrival in Moscow of Marina mniszech was the daughter of Boris Godunov, Xenia. There were rumors that she even managed to get pregnant from the king-impostor. Second passion autocrat after women were jewels. In addition, there is evidence that false Dmitry 1 often liked to boast and even to invent, where he repeatedly caught the boyars close.
In mid-may 1606 Vasily Shuysky decided to revolt against the poles, filled Moscow on the occasion of a wedding celebration. To Dmitry it became known, but he did not give such conversations a special value. Shuya started a rumor that foreigners want to kill the king, and thus raised the people to a bloodbath. Eventually he managed to change the idea to «go on the poles» with «the pretender». When burst into the Palace, the false Dmitry was trying to resist the crowd, then wanted to escape through the window, but fell from a height of 15 meters, fell in the yard, dislocated my foot, broke the chest and lost consciousness.
The body of the false Dmitry I of the conspirators began to protect hands and to calm the crowd, proposed to lead the Queen Martha, she again proved to have the king her son. But even before the return of the messenger an angry mob beat the false and demanded to give his name. Until the last moments of life he kept the version that he’s the real son of Ivan the terrible. Finished off the former king of swords and halberds, and already dead body a few days betrayed the public humiliation – smeared with tar, «decorated» with masks, singing insulting songs.
Buried the false Dmitry I for Serpuhovskij gate, to the cemetery for the poor, vagrants and drunkards. But this overthrow of the person of the king and the conspirators, torturers was not enough. Because after the murder of false Dmitry I at the edge of the collapsed storm ruzmetova crops, people began to say that the dead man in the grave is not sleeping, and at night goes out and takes revenge on former subjects. Then the corpse was dug and burned at the stake, and the ashes mixed with gunpowder and shot in the direction of Poland, where the false Dmitry I came. Incidentally, this was the only one in history shot, made the Tsar Cannon.