(biography, photos, videos) Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev: biography
Leonid Brezhnev – known political leader, which carried out its activity in the Soviet era. It is almost 20 years was at the heights of power of the Soviet Union, first Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, and, after the post of the head of the USSR. «Brezhnev era» received the award of stagnation, as the country’s economy was destroyed because of the disastrous reforms that subsequently led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev in modern Russia is evaluated differently in society – some see it as the better ruler of the XX century, and others today endure him with a sarcastic «thankyou» for the collapse of the country, which was inevitable at the end of the reign of Leonid Brezhnev.
Born Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, 19 December 1906 in the village of Kolomenskoe in Ekaterinoslav province, which now became the Ukrainian metallurgical city of Dniprodzerzhynsk in the Dnipropetrovsk region. His parents, Ilya Yakovlevich and Natalia Denisovna were ordinary working people. The future leader of the Soviet Union was first born in the family, later he had a younger sister Faith, and brother Jacob. Brezhnev family lived in modest circumstances in a small apartment, but the children were surrounded by love and care of parents, sought to compensate them for material goods.
Childhood Leonid Brezhnev in fact not particularly different from the children of that time, he grew up like a normal yard boy, he loved to race pigeons. In 1915, the future politician received in grammar school and immediately after graduation in 1921 he went to work at a butter factory. After two years of labour activity Brezhnev joined the Komsomol and then went to study at the local College for land surveyor. In 1927 he received the diploma of surveyor, which allowed him to work first in the province of Kursk, and after the Urals in the position of the first Deputy chief of the district land office.
In 1930, Leonid Ilyich moves to Moscow, where he entered the local agricultural engineering Institute, and a year later transferred to formal training in Dneprodzerzhinsk metallurgical Institute. While higher education future policy while working as a mechanic, a fireman on the Dnieper metallurgical plant. Then he enters the all-Union Communist party of Bolsheviks.
After graduating in 1935 the Institute received the diploma of the engineer, Leonid Brezhnev goes to serve in the army, where he received the first officer rank of Lieutenant. Giving back to the Motherland, the future head of the USSR returns to his ball and became Director of the metallurgical College. In 1937, biography of Leonid Brezhnev completely switched to politics, where he was actively engaged up to the end of his days.
Leonid Brezhnev’s political career began with the office of head of Department of regional Committee of the Communist party in Dnepropetrovsk. The period of Brezhnev’s activities occurred during the years of the great Patriotic war. Then he took an active part in the mobilization of the red army and evacuating industry. He then served in political positions in the ranks of the army, for which he was awarded the rank of major General.
In the postwar years, the future head of the Soviet Union was engaged in restoration of the destroyed during the war of the enterprises, while focusing on party activities, occupying the post of first Secretary of Zaporizhia regional Committee of the Communist party, where he was appointed on the recommendation of the first Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Nikita Khrushchev, with whom he had developed a relationship of trust. Friendship with Khrushchev and began passing ticket» to Brezhnev on the way to power.
Being at the top of the Communist party Leonid Brezhnev met with the reigning Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who in 1950 was appointed who showed loyalty to the Communist to the post of first Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist party of Moldova. At the same time, the politician became a member of the Presidium of the party Central Committee and chief of the political Department of the Navy and the Soviet Army. After Stalin’s death, Brezhnev lost his job, but in 1954 again under the patronage of Khrushchev becomes Secretary of the Communist party of Kazakhstan, at a position which is engaged in the development of virgin lands and actively participates in the preparations for the construction of the Baikonur cosmodrome. Also then, the future head of the USSR oversaw the development of space technology in the country and participated in the preparation of the first manned flight into space carried out by Yuri Gagarin.
The path to power of Leonid Brezhnev ended in a plot against Nikita Khrushchev, who was later dismissed from his state and party positions. Then the post of first Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee went to Leonid Ilyich, which is on its way eliminated all of his opponents and placed in key positions loyal people, which included Yuri Andropov, Nikolai Tikhonov, Konstantin Chernenko, Semyon Tsvigun, Nikolay Schelokov.
Since 1964, the country with the advent of Brezhnev returned conservative tendencies and is gradually growing negativity in the economy of the USSR, social and spiritual life of society. The Brezhnev party apparatus seen in their leader the only defender of the system, so the government rejected any reforms with the aim of preserving the old regime of government, vested with broad privileges. The country formally returned to «Leninist» principles of collective leadership, the party apparatus of the country is completely subjugated the state, all the ministries became regular performers at the decisions of the party and the top leadership remained non-party leaders.
The growth of bureaucracy and bureaucratic arbitrariness, corruption and embezzlement are the key adjectives which describe the power of the USSR during the Brezhnev’s reign. Special care of the new ruler was the development of externally-industrial complex, as it could not find the solution of the internal crisis of stagnation in the society and was fully focused on foreign policy. In the Union again began to use repressive measures to «dissidents» who were trying to protect their rights in the USSR.
The achievement of Leonid Brezhnev during the reign of the Soviet government as a whole are to achieve a political detente of the 70-ies, when the agreements were signed with the US on limitation of strategic offensive arms. He also signed the Helsinki accords, confirmed the integrity of the inviolability of European borders and the agreement on non-interference in the internal Affairs of foreign States. In 1977 Brezhnev signed the French-Soviet Declaration on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.
All these processes have been dashed by the introduction of Soviet troops in Afghanistan. The participation of the USSR in the Afghan conflict has led to the introduction of the anti-Soviet resolution of the UN security Council, as well as sectoral sanctions of the West, which relate mainly to the gas industry. The participation of the USSR in the Afghan conflict lasted almost 10 years and claimed the lives of about 40 thousand Soviet military. Then, the United States declared a «cold war» the USSR and the Afghan Mujahideen turned into the detachment of the anti-Soviet war, led by American leadership.
Under the leadership of Brezhnev, the Soviet Union also participated in the Vietnam and middle Eastern military conflicts. At the same time, the head of the Soviet state gave consent to the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact countries, and in 1980 began to prepare a military intervention in Poland, which significantly worsened the world’s attitude to the Soviet Union.
The results of Leonid Brezhnev’s rule as expressed in the final collapse of the economy, which was unable to restore his successors. However, many today believe the «Brezhnev era» the best of times for the Soviet people.
Leonid Brezhnev died on 10 November 1982, from a sudden cardiac arrest during sleep. The death of the leader of the Soviet Union occurred at the state dacha «Zareche-6» and shocked the entire Soviet Union, which for several days was plunged into mourning. According to historians, the health of Brezhnev since the beginning of 1970 failed when the Secretary General could hardly sleep for days because of the Prague spring.
Even then, during the meetings it was possible to observe the diction, which was associated with uncontrolled intake of sedative drugs. In late 1974, supporters of the Soviet leader understood that Leonid Brezhnev «ends» as an independent politician, as the work of her unit is fully concentrated in the hands of Konstantin Chernenko, had a facsimile of, and the ability to put the press under public documents with Brezhnev’s signature.
The first who learned of the death of Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, who was second after Leonid Brezhnev man in the country. He instantly arrived on the scene of the death of the Secretary General and immediately took a portfolio of Brezhnev, in which the politician kept the dirt on all members of the Politburo. Only a day later, he allowed to inform the society about the death of the head of the USSR.
Leonid Brezhnev was buried on 15 Nov 1982 in red square at the Kremlin wall in Moscow. His funeral was attended by leaders of 35 countries from around the world that made the farewell to the Secretary General of the lush and pompous the day after the funeral of Stalin. At the funeral of the Soviet leader attended a lot of people, some of whom could not hold back the tears and was genuinely sorry about the death of Leonid Brezhnev.
Personal life Leonid Brezhnev was stable. He was once married to Victoria Denisova, whom he met in 1925 during a party in College dormitory. Historians claim that the family life of the leader of the Soviet Union was calm – his wife took care of the house and children, and it policy.
Over the years of living together, Victoria bore her husband children, Yuri and Galina, who in her day was one of the most controversial figures of the Soviet elite. At the same time and about the amorous adventures of Brezhnev went to a lot of legends that have not found confirmation in modern history.
From working days the Secretary General had a good time hunting and cars. Brezhnev almost every weekend I left the house, to disconnect from everyday problems that in everyday life experienced solely using sedative pills, without which they could not live and work. He also regularly traveled to various theater and circus performances, attended sports matches and even been to the ballet. Such «active» leisure has become an outlet for Leonid Brezhnev, who was in control of the political system of the time that requires complete dedication from the leader.
Leonid Brezhnev to the heights of power come from the working lower classes, so is clearly aware of what a hard life. He was not wasteful, every penny earned was transferred to the savings Bank, and its needs do not differ from conventional «small» man. However, he did everything possible to the Soviet people for the first time normally shod and dressed, got housing and appliances, purchased personal vehicles and improved diet. That’s why people are nostalgic about the Brezhnev period, when the country began to pay greater attention to improving the welfare of ordinary people.