(biography, photos, videos) Leiba Bronstein
Leon Trotsky: biography
Leon Trotsky was an outstanding revolutionary of the XX century, went down in history as one of the founders of the Civil war, the red army and the Comintern. It was actually the second person in the first Soviet government and headed the people’s Commissariat for military and naval Affairs, where he showed his tough and uncompromising fighter against the enemies of the world revolution. After the death of Vladimir Lenin leading the opposition, speaking against the policies of Joseph Stalin, for which he was stripped of his Soviet citizenship and exiled from the Union and killed by the NKVD agent.
Born Lev Davidovich Trotsky (real name Leiba Davidovitch Bronstein) 7 November 1879 in the Ukrainian provinces near the village of Yanovka, Kherson province, into a Jewish family of wealthy landowners. His parents were illiterate, that did not prevent them to earn capital on the ruthless exploitation of the peasants. The future revolutionary grew up alone – he didn’t have friends of the same age with whom to frolic and to play, as it was surrounded by only children of laborers, on whom he looked down. According to historians, it was laid in the Trinity core character trait, which was dominated by a sense of superiority over other people.
In 1889 the young Trotsky’s parents were sent to study in Odessa, as he has shown interest in education. There he came under the quota for Jewish families at the College of St. Paul, where he became the best student in all disciplines. He never even thought of revolutionary activity, being fond of drawing, poetry and literature.
But in the last year 17-year-old Trotsky got into the circle of the socialists, who were engaged in revolutionary propaganda. Then he became interested in the study of the works of Karl Marx and later became a fanatical supporter of Marxism. In that period he began to show a keen mind, a penchant for leadership, gift polemical.
Immersed in revolutionary activity, Trotsky organizes the «South Russian workers ‘Union», which joined the workers of the Nikolaev shipyards. At that time few of them were interested in wages, because they received a sufficiently high salary, and troubled social relations under the tsarist rule.
In 1898 Leon Trotsky in his revolutionary activity for the first time goes to prison, where he had to spend 2 years. After that was his first exile in Siberia from which he escaped a few years. Then he managed to make a fake passport, which Lev Davidovich randomly entered the name of Trotsky as the senior warden of the Odessa prison. This name became for the future the pseudonym of a revolutionary, with whom he has lived all his life.
In 1902 after escaping from Siberian exile Leon Trotsky went to London to join Lenin, with whom he established communication channels of the newspaper Iskra, founded by Vladimir Lenin. The future revolutionary was one of the authors of Lenin’s newspaper under the pseudonym of «Pen».
Having become acquainted with the leaders of Russian social-democracy, Trotsky quickly gained popularity and fame, speaking abstracts campaigning for migrants. He astounded people by his eloquence and oratory, which allowed him to win to his serious attitude in the Bolshevik movement, despite his youth.
In the period of Leon Trotsky as Lenin supported the policy, for which he was dubbed «Lenin’s truncheon». But it didn’t last long – literally in 1903 the revolutionary moved to the side of the Mensheviks and began to accuse Lenin in the dictatorship. But with the leaders of Menshevism «not get along» because we wanted to try and unite the factions of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, which caused great political controversy. As a result, he declared himself «unaffiliated» member of the social democratic society, with the aim to create his own for that would be above the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
In 1905, Leon Trotsky returns home in a raging revolutionary sentiments Petersburg, and immediately rushes into the thick of things. He quickly organizes the St. Petersburg Soviet of workers ‘ deputies and delivers fiery speeches in front of crowds of people that were already maximally electrified revolutionary energy. For his active revolutionary again went to prison because he advocated the continuation of the revolution even after it appeared a Royal Manifesto, according to which people get political rights. At the same time he was also deprived of all civil rights and banished to perpetual exile in Siberia.
On the way to the «polar tundra» Lev Trotsky managed to escape from the cops and to get to Finland, where in a short time to move to Europe. Since 1908 the revolutionary settled in Vienna, where he began to publish the newspaper «Pravda». But four years later, the Bolsheviks, under the leadership of Lenin intercepted this edition, with the result that Lev Davidovich went to Paris, where he began the publication of the newspaper «Our word».
After the February revolution of 1917, Trotsky decided to return to Russia. Straight from the Finland station he went to Petrograd, where he was granted membership with the right of Advisory vote. In just a few months stay in St. Petersburg, Lev Davidovich became the informal leader of the » mezhrayontsi, which advocated the creation of a single Russian social-democratic labour party.
In October 1917, the revolutionary creates Military revolutionary Committee, 25 October (7 November, new style) conducting an armed uprising, overthrow of the provisional government, which has gone down in history as the October revolution. The revolution came to power the Bolsheviks under leadership of Lenin.
Under the new government, Leon Trotsky was given the post of Commissar for foreign Affairs, and in 1918 became the people’s Commissar for military and naval Affairs. From the moment he was engaged in the formation of the red army, making drastic measures, he was imprisoned and shot all violators of military discipline, deserters of all their opponents, giving no quarter to anyone, even the Bolsheviks that went down in history under the concept of «red terror».
In addition to military Affairs, he worked closely with Lenin’s domestic and foreign policy issues. Thus, by the end of the Civil war, the popularity of Leon Trotsky reached its climax, but the death of the «leader of the Bolsheviks» did not allow him to conduct the planned reforms to transition from «military communism» to New economic policy.
Trotsky failed to become the «successor» of Lenin and his place at the helm of the country was occupied by Joseph Stalin, who saw in Lev Davidovich serious opponent and hurried him to «neutralize». In may 1924, the revolutionary subjected to harassment by opponents under the leadership of Stalin, resulting in the lost post of people’s Commissar of naval Affairs, and membership in the Politburo. In 1926, Trotsky tried to restore its position and organized anti-government demonstration, with the result that he was exiled to Alma-ATA and then to Turkey with deprivation of the Soviet citizenship.
In exile from the Soviet Union, Leon Trotsky has not stopped his struggle with Stalin – he started to publish «Bulletin of the opposition» and created an autobiography, «My life» in which he justified his activities. He also wrote the historical work «History of the Russian revolution», which proved the irrelevance of the tsarist Russia and the need for the October revolution.
In 1935, Lev Davidovich moved to Norway, where he came under the pressure of power, did not want to worsen relations with the Soviet Union. Revolutionary took all the pieces and put under house arrest. This led to the fact that Trotsky decided to go to Mexico, where «safely» watched the development of Affairs.
In 1936 Leon Trotsky finished the book «the revolution Betrayed», in which he called the Stalinist regime of the counter-revolutionary coup. Two years later, the revolutionary proclaimed the creation of alternative «Stalinism,» Fourth international, whose heirs still exist in our days.
Personal life of Leon Trotsky was intimately connected with his revolutionary activities. His first wife was Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, who he met at 16 when you haven’t even thought about his revolutionary future. According to historians, the first wife of Trotsky, who was older than him by 6 years, was a pointer of a young man from Marxism.
The official wife of Trotsky Sokolovsky began in 1898. Immediately after the wedding, the couple was sent into Siberian exile, where they had two daughters, Zinaida and Nina. When the second daughter was only 4 months, Trotsky escaped from Siberia, leaving his wife with two small children. In his book «My life» Lev Davidovich when describing this phase of his life indicated that his escape was made with the full consent of Alexandra, which helped him free to escape abroad.
While in Paris, Trotsky had met his second wife Natalia Sedova, who took part in the work of the newspaper «Iskra» under the leadership of Lenin. As a result of this life-changing experience the first marriage of the revolutionary collapsed, but he kept Sokolowski friendships.
In a second marriage with Sedova of Leon Trotsky had two sons, Lev and Sergey. In 1937, in the family of revolutionary went through a succession of misfortunes. His younger son Sergei for his political activity he was shot, and after a year of Trotsky’s eldest son, who was also an active Trotskyist, died under suspicious circumstances during an operation for appendicitis in Paris.
The daughters of Leon Trotsky also suffered a tragic fate. In 1928 he lost his youngest daughter Nina from tuberculosis, and the eldest daughter Zinaida, along with his father is deprived of his Soviet citizenship, in 1933, committed suicide while in a state of deep depression.
After sons and daughters, in 1938, Trotsky lost his first wife to Alexander Sokolovsky, who until death was the only lawful wife. It was shot in Moscow as a persistent fan of the Left opposition.
Second wife of Leon Trotsky, Natalia Sedova, despite the fact that lost both sons, did not lose courage until the last days supportive of her husband. She, along with Lev Landau in 1937, moved to Mexico and after his death lived another 20 years. In 1960 she moved to Paris, which became her «eternal city, where she met with Trotsky. Sedov died in 1962, she was buried in Mexico next to a man with whom she shared a complex its revolutionary destiny.
August 21, 1940 at 7:25 am Leon Trotsky died. He was killed by NKVD agent Ramon Mercader in the house of a revolutionary in the Mexican city of Coyoacan. The assassination of Trotsky was the result of his correspondence struggle with Stalin, which at that time was head of the USSR.
The operation to eliminate Trotsky began in 1938. Then Mercader for the task of the Soviet power managed to get into the environment in revolutionary Paris. He appeared in the life of Lev Davidovich as a Belgian citizen Jacques Mornar.
Despite the fact that his house in Mexico, Trotsky was turned into a true fortress, Mercader managed to penetrate it and to carry out Stalin’s orders. In the two months preceding the murder, Ramona managed to ingratiate himself to the revolutionary and his friends that allowed him to appear frequently in Coyoacan.
12 days before the murder, Mercader arrived at Trotsky’s house and introduced him to an article written about the American Trotskyists. Lev Davidovich invited him to his office, where they first managed to be alone. That day revolutionary alerted the behavior of Ramona and her outfits in the intense heat, he appeared in a raincoat and hat, and while reading the article Trotsky stood behind his chair.
On 20 August 1940, Mercader again arrived to Trotsky article, which, as it turned out, was the reason that allows you to retire with a revolutionary. He was again dressed in a Cape and hat, but Lev Davidovich invited him into his office, without taking any measures.
Sitting behind the chair Trotsky, carefully read the article, Ramon decided on the execution of the order of the Soviet government. He took from his coat pocket an ice pick and struck him a severe blow on the head of a revolutionary. Lev Davidovich issued a very loud scream that ran up the guard. Mercader was captured, beaten, and then handed over to the hands of the special agents of the police.
Trotsky was immediately taken to hospital where two hours later he slipped into a coma. A blow to the head was so strong that it has damaged vital centers of the brain. Doctors fought for the life of a revolutionary, but he died after 26 hours.
For the murder of Trotsky Ramon Mercader got 20 years in prison, which was in capital punishment by Mexican law. In 1960, the killer of the revolutionary left and emigrated to the USSR, where he was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. According to historians, the preparation and execution of the assassination of Lev Davidovich cost of the NKVD of $ 5 million.