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Lavrenti Beria: biography
Lavrenty Beria is one of the most well-known odious politicians of the XX century, which today is widely discussed in modern society. He was highly controversial figure in the history of the Soviet Union and had a long political path, full of giant repression of people and vast crimes that made him the greatest «functional death» in the Soviet times. The head of the NKVD was cunning and crafty politician, the solution of which depended the fate of entire peoples. Its activities Beria was made under the auspices of the then incumbent head of the USSR Joseph Stalin, after whose death he intended to take his place at the «helm» of the country. But in the struggle for power lost to Nikita Khrushchev and the decision of the court was executed as a traitor.
Born Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria 29 March 1899 in the Abkhazian village of Merheuli in a family of poor peasants Samegrelo Beria Paul and Martha Jakeli. He was the third and only healthy child in the family – the eldest brother of the future policy, died of illness at the age of two, and sister suffered serious illness and became deaf. Lawrence Yun since the childhood took a great interest in education and thirst for knowledge that was unusual for peasant children. The parents decided to give her son a chance to be educated, for which they had to sell the house to pay for the training of boys in Sukhumi higher primary school.
Beria fully met the expectations of the parents and proved that the money was well spent – in 1915, he graduated with honors from College and entered the construction of the Baku secondary school. As a student, he brought a deaf-mute sister and mother in Baku, and to hold them together with his studies he worked in the oil company Nobel. In 1919, Lawrence p. graduated with a technician diploma of the Builder-architect.
During training, Beria organized the Bolshevik faction, whose ranks took an active part in the Russian revolution of 1917, working with a clerk at the Baku plant «Caspian partnership White City». He has also led the illegal Communist party of technicians, whose members organized an armed rebellion against the government of Georgia, for which he was imprisoned.
In mid-1920, Beria was expelled from Georgia to Azerbaijan. But after a short time he was able to return to Baku, where he was commissioned to do a KGB job, which made him a secret agent of the Baku police. Even then, colleagues of the future head of the NKVD noticed it was the cruelty and ruthlessness towards dissenters from the people that allowed Lavrenty Pavlovich to rapidly develop your career, starting with the Chairman of the Azerbaijani Cheka and ending with the post of people’s Commissar of internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR.
In the late 1920-ies the biography of Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria was concentrated on party work. It was then that he was able to meet with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who saw in revolutionary of his colleague and showed him the visible affection that a lot of people relates to the fact that they were of the same nationality. In 1931, he became the first Secretary of the Communist party of Georgia, and in 1935 was elected a member of USSR Central Executive Committee and Presidium. In 1937, the politician have reached another stage on the way to power and became head of the Tbilisi city Committee of the CP of Georgia. Becoming the leader of the Bolsheviks of Georgia and Azerbaijan, Beria gained the recognition of people and associates, who at the end of each Congress will praise him as the «beloved leader-Stalinist».
In that period Lavrenty Beria managed to scale sizes to develop the economy of Georgia, he made a great contribution to the development of the petroleum industry and introduced many large industrial facilities, as Georgia has become in the all-Union resort area. When Beria agriculture of Georgia volume increased 2.5 times, and for the products (tangerines, grapes, tea) were set high prices, which made the Georgian economy the richest in the country.
The real glory to Lavrenty Beria came in 1938, when Stalin appointed him head of the NKVD, which made policy after the second head man in the country. Historians argue that such a high office politician deserved thanks to the active support of the Stalinist repression of 1936-38, when the country passed the Great terror, which involves «cleansing» the country from «enemies of the people». In those years, lost the lives of nearly 700 thousand people who have suffered political persecution because of disagreement with the current government.
The head of the NKVD
After becoming head of the NKVD Lavrenty Beria was given senior positions in the office of his associates from Georgia, strengthening its influence in the Kremlin and Stalin. In his new position, he immediately conducted a large-scale repression of former KGB and spent a total cleansing in the governing apparatus of the country, becoming the «right hand» of Stalin in all matters.
This is Beria, according to most historical experts, was able to put an end to large-scale Stalinist repression, and also to the release from detention of many military and civil servants who were deemed «wrongly convicted». Through such action, Beria gained a reputation as the man who restored the «legality» in the USSR.
During the great Patriotic war, Beria became a member of the State defense Committee, which at that time was located all the power in the country. He only took the final decisions in relation to the production of weapons, aircraft, mortars, motors, and also on formation and overturning of the regiments at the front. Responsible for the «military spirit» of the red army Lavrentiy floated the so-called «weapons of terror», renewing the mass arrests and public execution for all not wanting to fight the soldiers and spies who were captured. Historians attribute the victory in world war II largely from the hard policy of the head of the NKVD, which was the whole military-industrial potential of the country.
After the war, Beria had worked on developing nuclear potential of the USSR, but continued by the hands of others to carry out mass repressions in the countries-allies of the USSR anti-Hitler coalition, where most of the male population was in concentration camps and colonies (GULAG). These prisoners were involved in military production that is carried out in conditions of strict secrecy, which provided the NKVD.
With the help of a team of nuclear physicists under the leadership of Beria and teamwork of scouts, Moscow received clear instructions on the device of nuclear bombs created in the United States. The first successful test of a nuclear weapon in the USSR was held in 1949 in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan, for which Lavrenty Pavlovich awarded the Stalin prize.
In 1946 Beria falls into the «inner circle» of Stalin and became Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. A little later, the head of the Soviet Union saw it as its main competitor, so Stalin began to carry out «cleansing» in Georgia and to check the documents of Lawrence Pavlovich, which complicated relations between them. In this regard, to the time of Stalin’s death Beria and several of his allies created a secret Alliance, aimed at changing some of the basics of Stalin’s rule.
He tried to strengthen their positions of power in the signing of several decrees aimed at judicial reforms, Amnesty global and the prohibition of harsh methods of interrogation, episodes of abuse of detainees. Thus, he intended to create a new cult of personality, the opposite of Stalin’s dictatorship. But, as it had virtually no allies in the government, after the death of Stalin against Beria was organized conspiracy, which was initiated by Nikita Khrushchev.
In July 1953 Beria was arrested at a meeting of the Presidium. He was accused of having links with British intelligence and treason. It has become one of the most notorious cases in the history of Russia among the members of the higher echelons of power of the Soviet state.
The court Lavrenty Beria was held from 18 to 23 December 1953. He was sentenced by a «special Tribunal» without the right to defense and appeal. Specific accusations in the case of the former head of the NKVD began a series of unlawful killings, espionage in Britain, the repression of 1937, the rapprochement with Adolf Hitler, treason.
23 December 1953 Beria was shot by decision of the Supreme court of the USSR in the bunker headquarters of the Moscow military district. After the execution the body of Lavrentiy was burned Donskoy crematorium, and the ashes of a revolutionary buried in the New Donskoy cemetery.
According to historians, the death of Beria allowed a sigh of relief all the Soviet people, who until the last day of the policy was considered a bloody dictator and a tyrant. In modern society he is accused of mass repressions more than 200 thousand people, among which were a number of Russian scholars and prominent intellectuals of the time. Also Lavrenty Pavlovich credited with the number of orders for the execution of Soviet soldiers in the war years was only into the hands of the enemies of the Soviet Union.
In 1941, the former head of the NKVD had carried out the «extermination» of all anti-Soviet leaders, killing thousands of people, among them women and children. During the war he spent a total deportation of peoples of the Crimea and the North Caucasus, the scale of which reached million people. Therefore, Lavrentiy Beria became the most controversial political figure of the USSR, in whose hands was the power over the fate of the people.
Personal life of Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, and today is a separate topic that requires serious consideration. He was officially married Nina Gegechkori, who bore him in 1924 son, Sergo. The wife of the former head of the NKVD throughout life, supported her husband in his difficult work and he was the most loyal friend, who tried to justify even after his death.
During his political activities in the heights of power, Lawrence p. was famous as the «Kremlin tyrant», have unbridled passion for the fairer sex. Beria and his women and today are considered the most mysterious part of the life of a prominent political figure. There is information that in recent years he lived on two families – his common-law wife was Lala Drozdov, who bore him an illegitimate daughter, Martha.
While historians do not exclude the possibility that Beria had a sick mind and was a pervert. This is confirmed by the lists of sexual victims» policy, which in 2003 was recognized in the Russian Federation. It is reported that the number of victims of serial killer Beria is more than 750 young women and girls whom he raped using the methods of sadism.
Historians tell us that very often, sexual harassment of head of the NKVD were subjected Schoolgirls 14-15 years, which he crammed into the soundproof interrogation rooms of the Lubyanka, where he presented a sexual perversion. During the interrogation Beria admitted that he had physical sexual relations with 62 women and in 1943 suffered from syphilis, which is contracted from seventh graders one of the suburban schools. Also in his safe during the search was discovered items of lingerie and baby dresses which was kept near the objects, typical for the perverts.