(biography, photos, videos) Kliment Voroshilov
Kliment Voroshilov: biography
Voroshilov, Kliment – the famous Russian revolutionary and a military leader, but later state and party leader. He was an active participant in the Civil war, and was awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union. Incidentally, Voroshilov holds the record length of stay in the Politburo and the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist party on these posts Kliment worked for almost 35 years.
Kliment Voroshilov biography which begins on February 4, 1881, was born in the village of Upper, situated in Ekaterinoslav province. Today is the city of Lisichansk, Luhansk oblast. Parents Voroshilov was a lineman Ephraim A. and his wife charwoman Mariya. Clement was the third child in the family, and the child he has dropped out is not easy. Father was often unemployed, the family lived on the brink of poverty. In seven years Klim Voroshilov went to work as a shepherd.
A little growing up, Voroshilov got a job at the mine, where he collected the pyrites. Hard work tempered boy, made him strong. But Clement knew that he needed to develop, so at the age of 12 enrolled in a district school in the village of Vasilyevka. However, the teenager has studied for only three classes, but it was enough to change mine to the metallurgical plant. Gain experience, Voroshilov become a locomotive of the enterprise in Lugansk. It is on the latter plant guy is written to the members of the Russian social-democratic labour party and starts to move up the career ladder.
A year Klim Voroshilov — member of the Lugansk Bolshevik Committee, he soon led this organization creates combat brigades and is delegated to the Congress of Bolsheviks. Clement conducted underground work for nine years, until the Revolution, over what was repeatedly arrested and even jailed. During one interrogation he was severely beaten, which resulted in traumatic brain injury. She Voroshilov had auditory hallucinations, and by the end of the life of man is completely deaf.
Like most of the Communists in those years, Rome had a secret name — «Volodin», but, in contrast to Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, at the first opportunity was to use my real name. By the way, with the leaders Voroshilov met in 1906. On the young worker leaders have made a strong impression, and he finally accepted their ideas. But Lenin was impressed by a young man, even called it «the village» and «balalaika». With Stalin, Kliment grew close during the defense of Tsaritsyn, and the Saga was crucial in the promotion Voroshilov: Stalin fully established in the opinion that it is a reliable and loyal fan.
During the First world war Kliment managed to evade conscription and continued his work on proletarian propaganda. In the days of the October revolution he became Commissar of the Petrograd military revolutionary Committee, and together with Felix Dzerzhinsky organized the famous Cheka all – Russian extraordinary Commission. During the Civil war Klim Voroshilov took a lot of posts, but one of the most significant was the appointment of a member of the revolutionary military Council of the First Cavalry army. As Clement took part in the creation of this military unit, commanded by Semyon Budyonny, who made an enormous contribution to the victory of the Bolsheviks, the success also rests on the shoulders of Voroshilov. Since it began invariably include important figures in the Revolution.
But today historians find evidence that Kliment did not possess any special talents commander. He was noted for his distrust of military experts of the old tsarist army, who were many under his command. Moreover, from eyewitnesses it is known that Voroshilov personally, in fact, didn’t win any serious battle. So thanks to that, he managed to make this weird, you can say, a brilliant career, and subsequently to remain at the head of the military Department a little less than 15 years, longer than any of his colleagues.
The fact that Kliment Voroshilov, really, having no experience of Semyon Budyonny and talent of Mikhail Frunze, had a rare time ability to work in a team. In addition, the future people’s Commissar for life has shown dramatic criticism and a complete lack of ambition. On the background of the adjacent careerists in the eyes of Lenin and especially Stalin, Voroshilov stood out in a good way.
In the early 20-ies of Clement commanded the troops of the North Caucasian military district, then was head of the Moscow Okrug, and after the death of Frunze became the head of all military departments of the USSR. When began the so-called Great terror, Voroshilov was one of those who reviewed and signed the lists of the repressed. His signature means a death sentence, certified 185 lists, consequently, the decree of Clement Voroshilov convicted and executed no less than 18 thousand citizens. Including the order of people’s Commissar of defence, was arrested around 170 commanders of the red Army.
When in 1935 for the first time in the Soviet army brought a personal military rank, Voroshilov among the top five commanders were awarded the title of «Marshal of the Soviet Union.» Clement has always been a supporter of Joseph Stalin and even wrote to his 50-year anniversary of the book «Stalin and the Red Army», which is pretty pathetic words described to achieve «first-class organizer and military leader.» However, it is known that Voroshilov had conflicts with the head of state, for example, about policy in China and personality of Leon Trotsky. And after the war with Finland in 1940, which, though ended with the victory of the Soviet Union, but was not as planned the power of the Kremlin, Stalin personally removed his longtime friend and supporter from the post of people’s Commissar of defense. Instead Klim Efremovich begins to oversee the defense industry.
During the great Patriotic war Voroshilov showed great courage when he personally led the Marines in a bayonet attack. But it has demonstrated a disastrous inability to lead troops in a new environment, he’s lost his respect for Stalin and was removed from important decision-making. He consistently trusted troops of the North-West, Leningrad front, Volkhov front, was appointed commander in chief of the guerrilla movement, but all his posts were removed and changed to a more successful military leaders, including Marshal Georgi Zhukov. At the end of November 1944, Kliment Voroshilov finally brought out of structure of the State defense Committee, and this is the only case of exception during the war years.
Family and personal life Kliment Voroshilov occupied a special place in his heart. With his only wife he met in the years of exile in Nyrob in 1909. His fiancee Golda Davidovna Gorbman fell in love with the climate so much that he abandoned his own family. The fact that the girl nationality was Jewish, but for the sake of marriage with Voroshilov was baptized in the Orthodox Church and changed her name to Catherine. This act of his daughter, was not approved by her parents, and all kinds of relations between them stopped.
By the way, Golda Davidovna was also a member of the Party, and later worked as a Deputy Director of the Museum. I. Lenin. It so happened that the Ekaterina Voroshilova could not have children. But her husband has never reproached his beloved wife. Voroshilova adopted orphan boy Peter, and after the death of Mikhail Frunze took the education of his son Timur, and daughter Tatiana. There is information that the adopted son Voroshilov called himself Leonid Nesterenko, Professor of the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute, son of a colleague of Clement at the Lugansk locomotive factory.
In his personal life Voroshilov was a role model for many citizens. He lived with his wife for nearly half a century, until her death from cancer in 1959. As the woman asked doctors to hide the disease from her husband, for Kliment Efremovich death of his beloved wife was a heavy blow. Historians who have studied the correspondence of the Commissar, confirming that there was no affair «on the side», and Voroshilov’s wife was always his one true love.
Klim Efremovich always led a healthy lifestyle, did a lot of sport – well sailed, respected gymnastics, and in 50 years became interested in skating and spent every weekend at the rink. By the way, Voroshilov actively contributed to the development of Soviet hockey and also thanks to him, the domestic players have become some of the best athletes in the world. In the early 20-ies of all the families of senior officials lived in the Moscow Kremlin. But over time people gradually moved into separate apartments, and only Kliment continued to stay in the same place of residence, left the Kremlin last of the ruling elite for several years before death.
As mentioned above, Klim Voroshilov always been loyal supporters of Stalin. More surprising that he and after his death left the government and joined the group of Nikita Khrushchev headed the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Not everything went smoothly in his work, for example in 1957 at fault Voroshilov was a major international scandal. Clement E., congratulating the anniversary of the Queen of great Britain, sent a telegram to the Queen of Belgium. The rumors were quite ambitious.
Nevertheless, in the last years were the highest award Voroshilov. He received the title of twice hero of the Soviet Union and Hero of Socialist Labor. But in 1960, Clement released from office, the official reason for retirement was indicated the condition. Changed to Voroshilov, future head of the country Leonid Brezhnev. When Klim E. died, which was December 2, 1969, his funeral provided an unprecedented public scale. For the first time in 20 years the burial occurred outside the Lenin Mausoleum.
In honor of Voroshilov became known as cities, streets, building and monuments. And sculptures to the people’s Commissar was not only in the USSR: for example, in Istanbul at Taksim square is the 12 meter monument «Republic». It was established under the personal direction of Mustafa atatürk in gratitude for the support given to the Soviet Russia towards Turkey’s independence. Clement there referred to as «First red officer».
Also Klim Voroshilov dedicated line such well-known Soviet songs as «March of the Soviet tankmen», «Polyushko-field», «If tomorrow war», «March of Budyonny» and many others. In the film Commissar portrayed more than fifty times, and embodied on the screen the image Voroshilov such stars of Russian cinema, as Evgeny Zharikov, Sergey Nikonenko, Mikhail Kononov. The last was Boris Shuvalov in the TV series «Son of the father of the nation» in 2013.