(biography, photos, videos) Iosif Brodskiy
Joseph Brodsky: biography
The poet-dissident Joseph Brodsky was born may 24, 1940 in Leningrad. His father worked as a war photographer, mother – accountant. When 50-m in the ranks of the officers held a «cleansing» of the Jews, the father moved to work as a photojournalist in the newspaper.
Childhood Joseph coincided with the war, blockade, hunger. The family has survived hundreds of thousands of people. In 1942, the mother took Joseph and evacuated to Cherepovets. In Leningrad, they returned after the war.
Brodsky dropped out of school, barely going to 8th grade. He wanted to financially help his family, so he went to work at the factory as an assistant Miller. Then Joseph wanted to become a conductor – did not happen. One time he wanted to become a doctor and even went to work in the morgue, but soon changed his mind. For several years, Joseph Brodsky has had many professions: all this time he drunken read poems, philosophical treatises, learned foreign languages and even going with his buddies to hijack a plane to escape the Soviet Union. However, the further intentions business is not has gone.
Brodsky said that writing poetry began with 18 years of age, although there are a few poems written in 16-17 years. In the early period of creativity, he wrote «the Christmas song», «Pushkin Monument», «From the outskirts to the center» and other poems. Later on his style influenced the poetry of M. Tsvetaeva, O. Mandelstam, A. Akhmatova and. Pasternak — they became his personal Canon.
14 Feb 1960, Joseph Brodsky first performed at the Leningrad «Tournament of poets». He was reading «the Jewish cemetery», which caused a serious scandal in the literary and social circles. Three years later in the «Evening Leningrad» published an article, the stigma of Brodsky for a parasitic way of life, it is quoted from his poem «March» and other works. The authors of the libel taking lines out of context that there was an accusation against the poet’s love for a foreign country. Joseph Brodsky was persecuted at all levels. In January 1964, the same newspaper published the letter, «outraged citizens» demanding to punish the poet, and on 13 February he was arrested for parasitism. The next day the camera had a heart attack. His thoughts of that period veiled in poetry «Hello, my ageing» and «What should I say about life?».
The persecution continued until may 1972, when Brodsky was given a choice – a psychiatric hospital or emigration. Joseph Alexandrovich had already been in a mental hospital and, as he spoke, she was much worse than prison. Brodsky chose emigration. In 1977, the poet became an American citizen.
Joseph Brodsky took part in the International poetry festival in London. Then he taught the history of Russian literature and poetry in the Michigan, Columbia and new York universities. In parallel, he wrote essays in English and translated into English the poems of Vladimir Nabokov. In 1986 he published a collection of Brodsky’s «Less than one», and in the following year he received the Nobel prize in literature. In the period 1985-1989, the poet wrote «to the memory of my father,» «the View» and the essay «room and a Half». In these poems and prose — all the pain of the person not allowed to celebrate the life of parents.
When the Soviet Union began perestroika, the poems of Joseph Alexandrovich actively printed literary journals and Newspapers. In 1990, the Soviet Union began to publish his books. Brodsky received an invitation from the homeland, but constantly pulled with this visit, he did not want media attention and publicity. The complexity of the return is reflected in his poems «Ithaca», «Letter to the oasis» and others.
The first great love of Joseph Brodsky became the artist Marina Basmanova, with whom he met in 1962. They had been Dating, then lived together. In 1968, Marina and Joseph had a son, Andrew, but with his birth, relations deteriorated. In the same year they broke up.
In the 90th he got to know Maria misses sozzani was the Italian aristocrat with Russian roots through the mother. In the same year, He married her and three years later they had a daughter Anna. Unfortunately, to see a daughter, Joseph Brodsky not meant to be.
He suffered from angina before the exile. His health condition was unstable. In 1978 he had a heart surgery, American clinic sent a formal letter to the USSR with a request to allow the parents of Joseph leaving to care for her son. The parents of 12 times applied for, but each time they were denied.From 1964 to 1994, Brodsky suffered 4 heart attacks, he never saw his parents. His mother died in 1983, and a year later became the father. The Soviet authorities refused his request to come to the funeral. The death of their parents undermined the health of the poet.
January 27, 1996 in the evening Joseph Brodsky resigned portfolio, wished his wife good night and went up to the office – he had to work hard before the beginning of the spring semester. On the morning of 28 January 1996, his wife found him without signs of life. Physicians verified death from a heart attack.
Two weeks before the death of the poet bought a place in a cemetery in new York, just off Broadway. There he was buried, fulfilling the last wish of the poet-dissident, who until his last breath loved his homeland.
In June 1997, the body of Joseph Brodsky was buried in Venice on the cemetery of San Michele.
- «Stop in the desert»
- «Cappadocia. Poems»
- «Roman elegies»
- «Remarks fern»
- «New stanzas to Augusta «
- «Landscape with the flood»
- «The expulsion from Paradise: Selected translations»
- «The Works Of Joseph Brodsky»