(biography, photos, videos) Jacques-Yves Cousteau
Jacques-Yves Cousteau: biography
Jacques-Yves Cousteau, French Explorer of the oceans, the Director of popular science films «Underwater Odyssey», the inventor of the aqualung, the author of many books about the underwater world. Friends and acquaintances called him ‘ Captain Cousteau. In General, it can be argued that the work of this man for many people opened the «blue continent».
Jacques-Yves was born in a suburb of Bordeaux in a small town called Saint-andré-de-Cubzac. His father Daniel was a lawyer, known throughout the country as a young lawyer, he received his doctorate. The boy’s mother, Elizabeth, came from a family of pharmacists, but she was a housewife and upbringing of Jacques-Yves and his older brother Pierre-Antoine.
The family resided in Paris, but travelled a lot. During the rest of the sea Cousteau, Jr., learned to swim and forever loved water. By the way, a 7 years old child was delivered to an incurable diagnosis of chronic enteritis, for which he was more than skinny.
After the First World war, the Cousteau family moved to the United States, where Jacques-Yves was fond of mechanics and invention, and made his first dive under water. After his return to Paris 13-year-old boy built a working model of a car engine that worked from the battery, and started to take the world on your own camera. The teenager was interested in so many things that school lessons had simply not had time. So the parents sent her son to the private boarding school, where he graduated with honors.
Then there was the naval Academy and service in Shanghai. One day, he saw at a roadside shop glasses for scuba diving. Having experienced them, Jacques-Yves realized what was going to devote his life.
Movies and books
In the early 50-ies of Jacques-Yves Cousteau leased the old decommissioned minesweeper of the British Royal Navy called it «Calypso» and began research of the ocean. The result of the expedition was scientific-popular book «the silent world», published in 1953. She brought Cousteau worldwide recognition, and the film based on it, instantly made him a legend of the documentary genre. The painting «the silent world» was awarded the awards «Oscar» and «Golden palm».
The debut film was followed by such films as «the Golden fish» and «World without sun», and then there was the TV series «Underwater Odyssey team Cousteau», which was released in total of 20 years. In addition to his Jacques-Yves took the cycle of films about the oceans, seas, rivers and their inhabitants as «Oasis in Space», «adventure in North America», «Amazon», «rediscovery of the world» and many others.
These films enjoyed great success, as it allowed people to look in places that are usually inaccessible to them. But not all experts approved of the work of Cousteau. He repeatedly criticized for pseudoscience and especially for cruelty to fish.
So, his colleague Wolfgang Auer argued that many of the killings and brutality over the fish was purposeful and was done Cousteau for quality training in their films. Sometimes Jacques-Yves was accused of false frames, for example, the exit of people from a submersible in the deep cave, where usually the atmosphere is unsuitable for breathing.
First, Jacques-Yves Cousteau was diving under the water with mask and snorkel, but then he, along with his friend Emil Ganyana has developed a device that allows you to breathe in deep water. The world’s first scuba they were tested in 1938 and has not only helped Cousteau, but for many scientists to better understand the underwater world.
Today, probably shooting under water does not seem something supernatural, but to Jacques-Yves and this one could not assume. He designed a waterproof camera and a lighting device, and later made the first television system capable of capturing videos at a great depth.
French researcher belongs to the theory that porpoises have a phenomenal ability to echolocation, that is, these animals feel the best path through the water. Later this theory has been proven by professional biologists.
And thanks to its popular-science books and films, Cousteau became the progenitor of a new method of television communications – divulgazione, that is, the exchange of views between professionals and ordinary audience of interested people. Today this technology built in all the modern talk show and other television projects, for which we have to thank, again, the French oceanographer.
The first time Jacques-Yves Cousteau married in 1937 to Simone Melchior, daughter of the legendary French Admiral. Simon participated in most expeditions of the husband, and the crew of the trawler «Calypso» came up to him the affectionate nickname «the Shepherd».
The couple had two sons Jean-Michel and Philippe, who died in 1979 at the time of the crash «Catalina». After this tragedy, the relations between Jacques-Yves and Simone went wrong. They began to live separately, but never officially divorced.
When Simone Melchior died of cancer in 1991, Cousteau married Francine Triplet, which by that time lived for more than 10 years and raised children together – daughter Diana and son, Pierre.
By the way, due to re-marriage had finally soured relations with his eldest son Jean-Michel, and he’s even in court forbade him to use the surname of Cousteau for its commercial activities.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau died on 25 June 1997 from myocardial infarction. The burial of the body of the great scientist was made on the family plot in the cemetery of Saint-andré-de-Cubzac, where the tombs of his ancestors. But his research has not stopped. He founded the society «captain Cousteau» is still in effect.
It is interesting that the memory of Jacques-Yves Cousteau is reflected not only in France but also in Russia. For example, one of the schools of Saint-Petersburg with in-depth study of the French language named after him.
- 1956 — the silent world
- 1958 — Golden fish
- 1965 — World without sun
- 1966-1985 — Underwater Odyssey team Cousteau
- 1975 — journey to the edge of the world
- 1977 — Oasis in Space
- 1981-1982 — adventures in North America
- 1982-1985 — Amazon
- 1986-1999 Re-discovery of the world
- 1995 — The Legend Of The «Calypso»
- 1953 — the silent world
- 1963 — the Living sea
- 1965 — World without sun
- 1970 the Shark: a Brilliant barbarian of the seas
- 1971 — the Life and death of coral
- 1972 — the Mighty ruler of the seas
- 1975 — Dolphins
- 1979 — Life on the edge of the earth
- 1984 — journey to the Amazon Jacques Cousteau
- 1985 — Jacques Cousteau: the ocean World