(biography, photos, videos) Ivan III Vasilievich
Ivan III: biography
«The gatherer of Russian lands» and Ivan the Great called the grateful descendants of its ruler, Ivan III. And Nikolai Karamzin extolled this statesman is even higher than that of Peter I. He, the great Prince of Moscow, who ruled the country from 1462 to 1505, being able to increase the territory of 24 thousand square kilometers to 64 thousand. But most importantly, he finally managed to rid Russia from the obligation to pay annually to the Golden Horde a huge dues.
Ivan III was born in January 1440. His father, Grand Prince of Moscow Basil II earned the nickname Dark due to his blindness, has appointed 16-year-old son as his co-ruler. At the age of 22 Ivan had to take on Board their own: Basil II died.
The reign of Ivan III
As a youth, the future Emperor learned to fight with the Mongols. His father would take him camping several times. After the death of his father Ivan III inherited the largest and most important destiny, which includes part of the city and the largest city of Kolomna, Vladimir, Pereslavl, Kostroma, Kostroma, Suzdal, Nizhny Novgorod. Brothers Ivan, Andrew Large, Andrew Younger and Boris were in control of Uglich, Vologda and Volokolamsk.
Ivan III, as he bequeathed to the father, continued his policy of gathering. He consolidated the Russian state by all possible means: where diplomacy and persuasion, and where and force. So in 1463 he was able to attach the Yaroslavl Principality in 1474-m, the state has increased due to the land of Rostov.
But this was only the beginning. Russia continued to grow, acquiring vast territories of the Novgorod lands. Then surrendered at discretion, Tver, and after it, gradually passed into the possession of Ivan the Great, Vyatka, and Pskov.
Great managed to defeat in two wars with Lithuania, taking possession of a large part of Smolensk, Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky principalities. Tribute to Ivan III paid the Livonian order.
But more importantly, 1480 Grand Prince of Moscow had stopped paying tribute to the Horde. Russia finally sighed from the 250-year yoke. It is noteworthy that to achieve liberation succeeded without much bloodshed. The whole summer the troops of Ivan the Great and Khan Akhmad stood against each other. They shared only the Ugra river (the famous standing on the Ugra). But the battle did not take place – the Horde was left with nothing. In the game of nerves army defeated the Russian Prince.
And during the reign of Ivan III there was a current Moscow Kremlin, built of brick on the site of the old wooden buildings. Was written and adopted set of national laws – sudebnik, stsementirovannyj young state. Also, there’s the beginnings of diplomacy and advanced for its time, the local landowning system.
Thanks to Ivan the Third of Moscow Great Principality became a powerful state, which learned in Europe. And the Ivan the Great was the first Russian ruler who called himself «Tsar of all Russia». Historians say that today’s Russia is basically using the Foundation that was laid by Ivan III Vasilievich. Even the double-headed eagle on the coat of arms of the state and he moved to the us after the reign of the Grand Prince of Moscow.
Argue that the doctrine «Moscow – Third Rome» originated during the reign of Ivan. That is not surprising, because when the size of the state increased by almost 3 times.
Personal life Ivan III
The first wife of Ivan the Great was the Duchess Maria of Tver. But she died giving birth to her husband the only son of Ivan Young.
Personal life Ivan III changed 3 years after the death of his wife. The enlightened marriage of the Greek Princess, niece and goddaughter of the last Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Zoe Palaeologus was crucial for the Emperor and for the whole of Russia. Those baptized in Orthodoxy Sophia Paleologina in the archaic life of the state.
In the yard there etiquette. Sophia Fominichna Palaeologus insisted on the development of the capital «discharged» from Europe famous Roman architects. But most importantly, it was she who persuaded her husband to decide on the refusal to pay tribute to the Golden Horde, because the boyars greatly feared such a radical step. Supported by a faithful wife, the Emperor broke off another of the Khan’s letter, which he has brought the Tatar ambassadors.
Perhaps Ivan and Sophia really loved each other. The man had listened to the wise advice of his educated wife, but did not like his boyars, previously had undivided influence on the Prince. In this marriage, which was the first dynastic, numerous offspring, 5 sons and 4 daughters. To one son, Vasily III, had transferred the power of the state.
The death of Ivan III
Ivan III survived his beloved wife only for 2 years. He died on 27 October 1505. The Grand Duke was buried in the Archangel Cathedral.
Later, in 1929, in the basement chamber of this temple were transferred to the relics of the two wives of Ivan the Great, Maria Borisovna and Sophia Palaeologus.