(biography, photos, videos) Georgiy Sviridov
Georgy Sviridov: a biography
The creative biography of one of the most original composers of the XX century is closely connected with the musical traditions of the Kursk region. The boy was born in the family of postal employee and a teacher in the town of Fatezh in 1915
The parents of the little Jura as a child called future musician, stood on different sides of the political divide. Father Vasily was early fascinated by the ideas of Bolshevism and supported throughout red, and the mother, born in a religious family, he held monarchist views.
Elizaveta Ivanovna Sviridova, nee Chaplygina, from a young age, sang in the choir, it influenced future musical tastes of her son.
Relatives through the mother — grandfather and great-grandfather of George, left a significant mark in the history of the region. They were engaged in the care of the schools of the City, was at the Council of the parish of the Epiphany Church of the city. In childhood, the boy regularly visited the small Church of Frol and Lavr with her grandmother on the maternal side, he especially loved the service of Maundy Thursday.
Later childhood experiences resulted not only in the composer’s love for vocal works, but also in the creation of later works on religious themes, which emerged from the pen of the author in the early 90s.
With the beginning of the civil war father Georgy Sviridov was tragically killed in a collision of the Bolsheviks with a group of Denikin’s forces, leaving his wife a widow with two young children: four-year Orochi and one-year-old Tamara. Single mother in search of work moved to Kirov to distant relatives.
The interesting facts of the composer’s life include the following case. Once in payment of labor Elizabeth Sviridova has offered to take on the German choice of a piano or a cow. And she, without hesitation, chose a musical instrument. By this time, responsive, educated woman have noticed the passion of a son for music and decided to help him to learn skills.
Little Yuri was not only fond of music, he loved literature, avidly read poetry and versed in the works of Russian and foreign poets. Besides, once intrigued by its beauty, he quickly learns this instrument for the performance of musical compositions on one of the celebrations.
In 1929 he joins the Kursk musical school in the class of the Faith Ufimtseva. The entrance exam was necessary to play a piece of music, but since the boy had no notes, he played a March of his own composition, it caught my attention teachers.
The second teacher was the composer Myron Krutyanskii. He advised Georgy Sviridov to continue music studies at the Leningrad musical College. And in 1932 a young man goes on a course to pianist Isaiah, Braudo.
George phenomenal student, quickly mastering piano technique, and in the evenings moonlights as a pianist in the cinema, but his wise teacher still refers to the administration of the institution with a request to transfer Georgy Sviridov at the composition course.
Yura enters in the class of Mikhail Yudin, and in 1936 became a student of the Leningrad Conservatory, where he studied in the class P. Ryazanov and Dmitry Shostakovich. Dmitry Dmitrievich, and they become friends. Senior fellow the strongest influence on the worldview of Sviridov, forever instilled in him a love for his roots.
A year after the accession of George taking the Union of composers. Outlet works of the young men became his piano Concerto, first Symphony and the Symphony for chamber orchestra.
Forties he spent in evacuation in Novosibirsk, together with all the staff of the Leningrad Philharmonic, where he got a job immediately after the completion of education. During these years, adept in instrumental music the composer first starts creating vocal works. To this genre he will return again.
His work was inspired by Shakespeare’s poetry of Avetik Isahakian in the translation of Alexander Blok, Robert burns, translated by Samuil Marshak and even poems by the Chinese poets Wang Wei, Bo Czuje and he Jijona.
From the mid-50s he starts creating compositions on the words of Sergei Yesenin, writing multi-part poem «to the memory of Sergei Yesenin and Vladimir Mayakovsky, making «pathetic oratorio». Georgy Sviridov wrote a cantata on words by Boris Pasternak. Popularity find his vocal pieces on poems by N. Nekrasov, A. Prokofiev, N. Lermontov.
The composer deliberately chooses the way of songwriting, because, in his opinion, the only voice is the only instrument of God. Instrumental music, which was usually made in Russia skomorokhs, was known as the servile arts.
In 60-ies Sviridov, thanks to the collected folklore of the region, opens a new page in the music of the academic tradition. It creates a cycle for choir and Symphony orchestra «Kursky songs» with folk motifs.
Following this work, many Soviet composers, such as. Gavrilin, G. Schedrin, N. Sidelnikov, S. Slonimsky, appeal to folk motifs in his work. Dmitri Shostakovich described this work and the work of his follower as a whole: «Sviridov few notes but a lot of music.»
The period of 70 years is considered the most fruitful in the works of the composer. He created his most famous composition «the Blizzard» on motives of works of A. S. Pushkin. The most interesting «musical illustrations» are considered to be the composition «Waltz», «three», «Winter road».
Equally popular was the work, that knew every student in the country, «Time, forward!». His Sviridov wrote for the film Michael Schweitzer, and then made into a Suite. Despite the fact that Georgy is always long subscribed to the scores of their compositions, this composition he created in an hour and all because was in a hurry to fishing, which was his favorite pastime after music.
At the same time had to write a poem on the poems of Sergei Yesenin «sail Rus» — a real pinnacle of creativity of the composer.
The personal life of the composer was not easy. He was three times married. He had two sons, but under tragic circumstances George outlived both sons.
About leaving the life of the older Sergei, who was born in the marriage with his first wife, the composer ever remembered. Later, after the death of George Vasilyevich, it became known that the boy had committed suicide, when my parents were at the premiere in the theater. Was the young man at the time 16 years.
The youngest son George was seriously ill and he had to leave home for treatment. Having lived in Japan for a long time, he died a week before his father’s death. This event Georgy did not know.
On the first two marriages, the composer never mentioned in interviews. It is known that the first wife of George Vasilievich was a pianist, composer classmate in College. Her Name Was Valentina Tokareva.
Second wife Sviridova, actress Aglaia Kornienko, was younger than him by 12 years. For her Georgy Sviridov left his first family and the little four-year-old Sergei. Married to Arlauskas, affectionately called her a musician, he was born the second son George.
Mostly known to fans of his third wife — Elsa Gustavovna Sviridov (Closer), which was younger than the composer of 10 years.
They met at a musical evening at the Philharmonic, which performed the works of a young talented composer. Elsa Gustavovna wanted to personally Express my gratitude Sviridov, and after the meeting they did not leave, so great was the strength of feeling that erupted in the hearts of both.
The last years of his life
Elsa Gustavovna was a connoisseur of art and a connoisseur of creativity her husband. In many ways, it was written to his advice and his perspective. She survived her husband only 4 months, some time before he could visit the sole Director of the Foundation named after G. Sviridov.
After the death of Elsa Sviridova this place forever left behind her. The last years of his life seriously ill composer spent much time in the country, engaged in writing music and loved fishing. In the photo this period Georgy Sviridov zapechetlen as serious thoughtful philosopher, absorbed in thoughts about the Motherland. The composer died on Christmas eve 1998.
Works By Georgy Sviridov
- 7 small pieces for piano (1934-1935)
- 6 romances on words of A. S. Pushkin (1935)
- Concerto No. 1 for piano and orchestra (1937)
- 7 romances on words by N. Lermontov (1938)
- Chamber Symphony for string orchestra (1940)
- Concerto No. 2 for piano and orchestra (1942)
- Sonata for piano (1944)
- Piano quintet (1944)
- Piano trio (1945)
- Vocal-symphonic poem «in Memory. A. Yessenin» (1956)
- «The pathetic oratorio» St. V. Mayakovsky (1959)
- «Kursk songs» for mixed choir and orchestra, folk words (1964)
- The music for the film «Blizzard» (1964)
- Little cantata for chorus and orchestra «Snowing» on the poetry of Boris Pasternak (1965)
- Suite «Time, forward!» (1965)
- A choral concert «in Memory of A. A. Yurlov» (1973)
- Musical illustrations to A. S. Pushkin’s story «Blizzard» (1978)
- «Sail Rus», cycle for voice and piano to words of Yesenin S. A. (1977)
- «Pushkin’s wreath» for chorus (1979)
- «Ladoga», poem for chorus to words by A. Prokofiev (1980)
- «Songs», a concert for choir to words by Alexander Blok (1980-1981)
- «Chants and prayers» (1994)