(biography, photos, videos) Elizabeth I
Elizabeth: a biography
Elizabeth – Russian Empress, which became the last representative of the Royal Romanov dynasty through the female line. She entered the history of Russia as a truly leader, since he had expressed a passion for elegant high society balls, and various entertainments. The years of her reign is not marked by a special pronounced advances, but she skillfully led his yard and maneuver among political factions, which allowed it to be held firmly on the throne for two decades. However, Elizabeth I played an important role in the development of culture and economy, and also managed to lead the Russian army to several sure victories in major wars.
Elizabeth was born December 29, 1709 in the village of Kolomenskoe. She was the illegitimate daughter of the king of Peter the great and Martha Skavronskaya (Catherine I), and therefore received the title of Princess, only two years after birth, when the parents entered into the official Church marriage. In 1721, after the accession of Peter I to the Imperial throne Elizabeth and her sister Anne received the title of cesarean, which made them the legitimate heirs to the throne.
Young Elizabeth was the most beloved daughter of the Emperor Peter, but saw his father rarely. Her upbringing had been mostly involved tsarevna Natalya Alekseevna (aunt paternal) and family, Alexander Menshikov, who was the associate of Peter the great. But they did not bother the future Empress studies – she’s thoroughly engaged in the study of the French language and the development of beautiful handwriting. She also received a superficial knowledge of other foreign languages, geography and history, but they were not interested in the Princess, so all her time is devoted to the care of its beauty and selection of attire.
Elizabeth was known as the most beautiful woman at court, had mastered dancing, had a remarkable ingenuity. Such qualities made her the «main center» of diplomatic projects – Peter the Great had plans to give her daughter to marry Louis XV and the Duke of Orleans, but the French Bourbons replied with a polite refusal. After that, the portraits of the Princess Royal was sent to the minor German princes, but expressed interest in Elizabeth Karl August of Holstein on arrival in Saint Petersburg died, and before reaching the altar.
After the death of Peter the Great and Catherine I care about the marriage of Elizabeth completely stopped. Then the Princess gave herself entirely to the entertainment, to Hobbies and entertainments at court, but with accession to the throne his cousin Anna Ioannovna has been stripped of its brilliant condition and placed in the Alexandrovskaya Sloboda. But society saw Elizabeth, the true heir of Peter the Great, so she began to show ambitions for power, and she began to prepare for the fulfillment of their «rights» to reign, which by law was illegitimate because it was a premarital child of Peter I.
Ascension to the throne
The title of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna was the result of the bloodless coup in 1741. It took place without prior agreement, as the Empress especially did not aspire to power and showed himself a strong political figure. At the time of the coup, she had no program but was engulfed in the idea of self-rule, which was supported by ordinary citizens and guards, have expressed dissatisfaction with the dominance of foreigners at the court, disgraces the Russian nobility, strengthening of serfdom and the tax legislation.
In the night from 24 to 25 November 1741, Elizabeth Petrovna, with the support of his confidant and privy councillor Johann Istoka arrived in the Preobrazhensky barracks and raised the Grenadier company. Soldiers implicitly agree to help her to overthrow the current government and composed of 308 people went to the Winter Palace, where the Princess declared herself the Empress usurped power: the Emperor-infant Ivan Antonovich and all of its relatives of the genus Braunsweig was arrested and imprisoned in the Solovetsky monastery.
Given the circumstances of his accession to the throne of Elizabeth I, it has signed the first Manifesto was a document according to which it was the sole legitimate heiress to the throne after the death of Peter II. After that, it proclaimed its political course aimed at returning the heritage of Peter the Great. In the same period, she hurried to reward all his associates who helped her ascend to the throne: a company of grenadiers of the Preobrazhensky regiment was renamed the life company, and all the soldiers had noble roots, elevated to the nobility and raised in rank. Also, they were awarded lands confiscated from foreign landlords.
The coronation of Elizabeth took place in April 1742. It was held with great magnificence and style. That’s when 32-year-old Empress has solved all my love to the bright spectacle and masquerades. In the period of celebrations was declared a mass Amnesty, and people in the streets were singing a welcome ode to the new Queen, who managed to expel the rulers, the Germans and became in their eyes the winner of «foreign elements».
Wearing the crown and having the support and encouragement of society changes, Elizabeth I after his coronation immediately signed the second Manifesto. In it the Empress in pretty rough shape laid out evidence of the illegality of the rights to the throne of John VI and put the temporary charges of the German and Russian friends. In the end, the favorites of the former Empress Sevenfold, Munnich, Osterman, Golovkin and Mengden was sentenced to death, but after the ruler decided to mitigate his punishment and was exiled to Siberia, than decided to prove a tolerance.
From the first days on the throne, Elizabeth I started to praise «acts of Peter» — she had restored the Senate, the Chief Magistrate, the Provision of the Board of Manufactures and Berg College. At the head of these departments she has put those members of the public who were in favor with the former government or were before the failed coup simple guards officers. Thus at the helm of the new government became Peter Shuvalov, Mikhail Vorontsov, Alexei Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Alexei Cherkassky, Nikita Trubetskoy, which at first Elizabeth hand in hand led Affairs of state.
Elizabeth had a serious humanization of public life, reduced the number of parental orders that impose harsh punishment for bribery and embezzlement for the first time in 100 years abolished the death penalty. In addition, the Empress paid a special attention to cultural development is the arrival of power historians associate with the beginning of the Enlightenment, as Russia was reorganized educational institutions, expanded the network of primary schools, opened the first grammar school, founded by Moscow University and the Academy of arts.
Making the first steps in the country’s governance, the Empress has fully devoted himself to court life, intrigue, and entertainment. The administration of the Empire passed into the hands of her favorites, Alexei Razumovsky and Pyotr Shuvalov. There is a version that was Razumovsky, secret husband of Elizabeth, but it was a very humble man, trying to stay away from politics. Therefore, Shuvalov in 1750-ies almost independently ruled the country.
All the achievements of Elizabeth I and the results of its Board can be called for country zero. Thanks to its reforms, conducted on the initiative of the favorites in the Russian Empire was abolished internal customs, which accelerated the development of foreign trade and entrepreneurship. She also reinforced the privileges of the nobles, children of which the birth was recorded in the state regiments, and at the time of service in the army they were already officers. The Empress gave the landlords the right to decide the destiny of the peasants, they were allowed to sell people at retail, to banish them to Siberia. It caused more than 60 peasant uprisings throughout the country that the Empress was suppressed very cruelly.
Elizabeth in the years of his reign established new banks in the country, actively developed manufactory production, slowly but surely increasing economic growth in Russia. She also had a powerful foreign policy – on account of the Empress’s two victories in large-scale wars (Russo-Swedish and Seven years), which has been to undermine the authority of the country in Europe.
Personal life of Elizabeth was not formed with the youth. After the failed attempts of Peter the Great «successfully» give away his daughter, the Princess refused a formal marriage, preferring it to the wild life and entertainment. There is a historical version that the Empress was at a secret Church marriage with her favorite Alexei Razumovsky, but no documents confirming this Union, has not survived.
In 1750-ies, the ruler made a new favorite. He became a friend of Mikhail Lomonosov, Ivan Shuvalov, who was very well read and educated man. It is possible that, under his influence, Elizabeth was engaged in the cultural development of the country. After the death of the Empress he fell out of favor with the new government, so the reign of Catherine II was forced to flee abroad.
After the death of the Empress in the courtyard there were a lot of rumors about the secret children of Elizabeth. The society believed that the Empress was the illegitimate son from Razumovsky and daughter from Shuvalov. This «rediscovering» a lot of impostors, who considered themselves the king’s children, the most famous of which was Princess Tarakanova, Elizaveta called himself Vladimir.
Death of Elizabeth occurred on 5 January 1762. On 53-m to year of life the Empress died from a throat hemorrhage. Historians have noted that since 1757 the health of the ruler began to deteriorate: she was diagnosed with epilepsy, shortness of breath, frequent nosebleeds, swelling of the lower extremities. In this regard, she had almost completely dismantle his active court life, pushing lush points and techniques by the wayside.
In early 1761, Elizabeth I suffered from a severe pneumonia, which confined her to her bed. The last year of his life, the Empress was very ill, she had constantly had attacks of catarrhal fever. Before the death of Elizabeth occurred hard cough, which caused severe bleeding from the throat. Unable to cope with the disease, the Empress died in his chambers.
5 Feb 1762 the body of the Empress Elizabeth with all the honors was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
Elizabeth’s heir was her nephew Karl Peter Ulrich of Holstein, who, after his Declaration as Emperor was renamed Peter III Fedorovich. Historians call this transition painless for all Board in the XVIII century.