(biography, photos, videos) Dmitri I Ivanovich
Dmitry Donskoy: biography
Dmitri I Ivanovich, who received the nickname of Dmitry Donskoy for the victory in the battle of Kulikovo, in the 9 years he became the Prince of Moscow, and 13 — Grand Duke of Vladimir. The reign of Dmitry Donskoy marked the unification of the Russian lands with the center in Moscow Principality. Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy known as the founder of the white-stone Moscow Kremlin as a military leader, to resist the Golden Horde, and most importantly – as one of the most fair and kind rulers of Russia.
The story of Dmitry Donskoy began in Moscow in October 1350. He was born in the family of Prince of Moscow Ivan II red and his second wife, Princess Alexandra Ivanovna. Dmitry had a sister Anna and brother Ivan, who received the allegiance of Zvenigorod. By the way, the famous Prince Ivan Kalita, Dmitry Donskoy have each other, grandfather and grandson. A brief biography of Dmitry Donskoy managed to count only nine years old when the boy was orphaned. Child took Muscovy, and the actual ruler became his guardian, Metropolitan Alexei Fedorovich Bacon. They have developed very warm relations, and the Prince Dmitry Donskoy consulted with Metropolitan Alexy even in adulthood.
Not having to sit on the throne, 9-year-old Prince Dmitry I was forced to fight for power in Vladimir with other contenders. Due to the machinations of the Prince of Tver Mikhail’s the war began between Moscow and Lithuania. Three times the Lithuanian ruler Algirdas tried to seize the Duchy of young Dmitry, albeit unsuccessfully, but his attacks have severely undermined the economy: the surrounding area was destroyed, thousands of people were taken prisoner. From complete destruction of Moscow during that period rescued the collection of tribute.
The Policy Of Dmitry Donskoy
The reign of Dmitry Donskoy belongs to the most sad and difficult times of Russian history. Constant wars, enemy raids and internal strife have become a symbol of the time. The Lithuanians attacked Moscow and Dmitry went to war against Smolensk and Bryansk areas. After the Moscow fire in 1367 Dmitry I was not built of wood, and the updated white stone Kremlin, which has become a real shield of the city. In the end the Prince managed to centralize power and successfully fight not only against their neighbors but against the troops of Mamaia.
The increasing power of Moscow Principality disturbed the khans of the Golden Horde, Mamai sends troops to Moscow. They defeated Nizhniy Novgorod, but in the battle of the river Vagi Russian army inflicted a Horde army a crushing blow. Then the Horde collects a greater number of soldiers and goes in new campaign against Russia. The result of this was the battle of Kulikovo, which is considered one of the key events in Russian history. Dmitry Donskoy wins, but his misfortunes did not stop, although the tribute to pay more was not necessary.
After the battle of Kulikovo, a merger of the Vladimir and Moscow principalities, and Moscow became the center of unification of Russian lands. However, two years later, Khan Tokhtamysh took advantage of the absence of the Grand Prince in his native city, was attacked and utterly destroyed Moscow. Dmitry had to agree again to pay tribute to the Horde, although much less than before. This led the Moscow Treasury in ruin, and the don begins a new civil war with Ryazan and Novgorod.
The battle of Kulikovo, Dmitry Donskoy
The famous battle of Dmitry Donskoy is interesting not only from the standpoint of patriotism, but also as a fine example of military strategy. The army of Khan Mamai was on the South Bank of the Oka river to merge with the power of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jagiello and Oleg of Ryazan. Then Dimitri moved his wife for don, than accelerated the collision only with the army of Mamai, and deprived of that numerical advantage. The battle started with small skirmishes of a few advanced units, after which according to tradition took place the famous fight, the duel of Tartar, with Chelubey by the monk Alexander Peresvet. It’s possible that this fight is actually merely a literary fiction of «tales of Mamay», as scientists have not yet succeeded to prove its reality.
Dmitry Donskoy first was in a guard regiment, but then swapped clothes with the boyar Mikhail Brankom and rose to the ranks of big regiment to take part in the battle. Also worth mentioning that the Tatars managed to split the Russian army and chase the left flank of the don army to the river. And right here again played a role strategy: Western regiment of the don’t came into the fight as soon as this was expected, and waited for the Horde as much as possible will break through to the river. Thus, enemies caught in the grip, the Tatar cavalry was in the water and was there killed. The mother managed to escape from Kulikovo field, together with a small group of troops, but the bulk of his army was killed. In this battle, Dmitry Donskoy got a concussion, lost his horse and was later found unconscious, but alive.
The wife of Dmitri Donskoi Eudoxia of Moscow, is still considered the ideal mother and wife. They met in his youth and, according to legend, fell in love with each other at first sight. At the time of the wedding the bride was only 13 years old and the groom 16. In any case, the Union of Eudoxia and Dmitry was very spiritual, confirming the Church’s history. Dmitry Donskoy and Eudoxia of Moscow gave birth to 12 children. The best known is the second son of Vasily I of Moscow, who began to rule after his father’s death, as the firstborn son Dmitry died as a child.
Dmitry I and Eudoxia lot of effort and money spent on charity, has built many churches and temples, including Pereyaslavlskogo monastery, Church of John the Baptist, the Church of the Nativity and the ascension convent in Moscow.
After her husband’s death Evdokia Moscow departed from tradition and not immediately entered a monastery and began to help his son in running the Duchy and even took the throne when he went to war. Opponents tried to imagine such a thing of women as the betrayal of her husband, to accuse her of infidelity and promiscuity, but people took the widow Duchess as a wonderful mother, desirous of happiness for their children. Eudoxia waited until all the sons and daughters will have families, and only then took monastic vows, becoming the better half of the Euphrosyne, which is now considered the patroness of Moscow.
The circumstances and cause of death of Dmitry Donskoy has not been elucidated so far. It was hardly murder, as the Prince died in his chambers, before having a long conversation with his wife and children. In the course of this conversation-will, he handed over the reign of his son Basil, but obliged strictly to listen to the will of the mother Evdokia Dmitrievna.
Dmitry Donskoy years of his life which were spent in the tireless fight against the European invaders and the Golden Horde, died 19 may 1389. At the time he was 38 years old. The Prince was buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Kremlin, and later the Russian Orthodox Church canonized him.
Photo Of Dmitry Donskoy