(biography, photo, video) Arkady Golikov
Arkady Gaidar: biography
Arkady Golikov (Gaidar) – children’s writer, member of the bloody Civil war and Punisher of the anti-Soviet underground. Golikov is one of the most controversial figures in Soviet history. Who he is: a killer of civilians, a hardened alcoholic, or a talented children’s writer?
Arkady Petrovich was born 9(22) January 1904, in the town of Lgov, in the Kursk province. My mother was a writer was a hereditary nobleman (in fact, mother Natalia was in a relationship with Mikhail Lermontov), paternal – the grandson of a serf.
Later the family moved to Arzamas. Arkady was the first one, and the new place had three sisters – Natasha, Katya and Olga. The researchers argue that the talent woke up the writer in the early years: to write and speak in rhyme he learned before write, and count.
At the age of 10 years old boy determine Arzamas real school. Here young high-school student made an attempt to escape to the front, where before they took the father, but the boy under escort returned home. While studying at school, Arkady was surprised the teachers of his extraordinary memory – he memorized entire books and textbooks.
After the fall of the Royal family in Arzamas, a lot of parties and student committees. In the summer of 1917 Golikov was promoted to messenger, and in 1918 he joined the Bolshevik wife. At first the Bolsheviks took the young man in the RCP(b) as a candidate, and a member of the party 15-year-old Golikov became 15 Dec 1918. He initially served as adjutant, and later headed the Department of protection of the railway.
The boy was always asking to go to the front, but the commander insisted that the first guy passed the relevant training. It happened – Golikov went to the Moscow command courses of the red Army. Later the institution was moved to Ukraine, to Kiev. Once in Kiev, Arkady fought with Petlyura and the Ukrainian rebels.
In 1919, Golikov became a commander in the 1920’s Commissioner staff. At the age of 17, he knew more about warfare than many generals. In 1921 he received the title of commander of the regiment. Golikov fought on different fronts (in Sochi, the don, in the Caucasus front), where he became ill with typhus, was shot and twice wounded. In 1922 he was sent to suppress anti-Soviet uprising in Khakassia. Here the young commander, and proved himself as a bloodthirsty tyrant who does not like Jews and shot of population on suspicion of banditry.
According to historians, Gaidar was pushing women and children off a cliff and killed anyone suspected of anti-Soviet activities. In 1922 he was accused of abuse of power. Gaidar was fired and expelled from the party, sending to a psychiatric examination. The outcome of the case a diagnosis of «traumatic neurosis.»
Arkady Petrovich returned from the front a hardcore alcoholic with a badly eroded psyche.
«From the ship to the ball» — that’s how historians refer to literary activity Golikova, which began immediately after the end of his military career. Arkady took his first manuscript, «In the days of defeats and victories» and brought it into the popular Leningrad almanac «Bucket». With the words: «I am Arkady Golikov, and this is my novel and I ask him to print,» the writer gave the editor several scribbled notebooks. And the artwork is printed.
Then the writer moved to Perm, where in the magazine «Star» published his first work under the pseudonym Gaidar («Corner house»).
In subsequent years, he published essays and satires. In between nervous disorders and the move writes his best books: «RVS», «School» and «Fourth dugout». A few times Arkady Petrovich take doctors with bouts of delirium tremens, he was arrested for shooting drunk.
Followed by several suicide attempts, the writer tries to cut his wrists. Boris Zaks – the colleague-the journalist, claimed that his hands were covered with large scars, cut veins Arkady than once. In 1932 Golikov was in a psychiatric hospital, where he wrote «Military secret». All in all, the assurances of Gaidar, he was in psychiatric hospitals 8-10 times.
In 1938 for a children’s writer came all-Union fame – the country was already reading books and collections of his stories by heart remembers «Timur and his team», «Chuk and GEK». The writer took Tamerlane’s son and foster daughter of Eugene in the Crimea and was forgotten about psychological problems.
In March 1941, Arkady Petrovich, resting in the sanatorium «Sokol», met with Zoe Kosmodemyanskoy. When the war began, Gaidar had just received an order for writing the screenplay for «Timur and his team». The script was completed within 12 days, after which Arkady wrote a statement to the front.
The writer was married three times:
The first wife of the writer was Maria Plaksina – 17-year-old nurse. To the writer at the time of marriage was 17 years. The first wife gave Gaidar son Eugene, but the firstborn died in infancy.
Second wife Golikova was a 17-year-old Leah Lazarevna solomyanskaya — a fan of the pioneer movement and the organizer of the newspaper «the Ant wizard». In 1926, the couple had a son Timur. However, a writer to live was difficult, he was drinking alcohol and suffered from mental disorders. In 1931 his wife Leah took her son and left her husband to Samson Glaser (journalist of «Komsomolskaya Pravda»).
The third time the writer has tied the knot with Dora Chernysheva. It happened in 1938. Being an elderly woman, Dora already had a daughter Eugenia, which was later Arkady was adopted.
Last years and death
Despite the ban, the writer arrived at the front. He came to Kiev. Acting as correspondent, gave advice. Later appeared in the rear of the Germans, and then became a member of the guerrilla group.
Ventured out in 1941, the writer along with a few partisans on October 26 were in ambush near the railway embankment. Finding the enemy, Gaidar managed to warn her, shouting: «Guys, the Germans!» This phrase has saved the lives of other partisans, but resulted in the death of Arkady Petrovich.
However, there is another version, according to which the writer died 26 October. Ukrainian journalist Viktor Glushchenko, conducting its own investigation, learned that Gaidar and a few partisans, a woman sheltered by Kristina Kuzmenko. Christine lived until the spring, the soldiers moved towards the front, but they were caught. Later, the guerrillas managed to escape. They hid in the woods, and the food they wore some kind of Ulyana Dobrenko. These data were not enough for the history of the death of Gaidar. Dubious and another fact – the body of the slain was an officer’s uniform and linen blend that does not add up with the story about the guerrillas.
Nowadays his name is Arkady Gaidar’s named tens of streets, his image is used in music and literature, and in Khabarovsk is a memorial to writer.
More than 70 years have passed since the writer’s death. However, researchers are still arguing about its life history.
Interesting facts about Arkady Gaidar:
- The writer joined the ranks of the red Army at the age of 15 years.
- Historian Andrei Burovskii leads to an alternate version of late enrollment in the ranks of the red Army. In his opinion, the army Arkady recorded the mother, to save from punishment for the murder (or murders) committed by her son. Gaidar, during a fit of madness, once admitted that in his youth he committed the murder: «Dreamed of people killed me as a child…»
- Interesting pseudonym of the writer. According to one version, «Gaydar» in translation from Turkic translated as «messenger», «best rider». Another source claims that the nickname comes from the phrase «Arkady Golikov from Arzamas». The third version says that the nickname originates from the Khakas word «Haidar», which means «where.» During his service in the Republic of Khakassia local shouted: «Haidar Golik is coming!».
- Holds the view that gravestone in Kano (a city in Cherkasy region) is not Arkady Gaidar. In particular, a few years after burial, the stove cracked. It was replaced by a new one, but it is also cracked.
- There is a version that Timur (son of Leah Solomianskyi) he is not native and adopted son. For the first time the writer saw Timur only at the age of two, and at the time of possible conception (April 1926), Gaidar was in Central Asia. Thus, it is possible that the writer does not exist lineal descendants.
Most famous works Golikova:
- The «blue Cup» (1936);
- «Timur and his team» (1940),
- «The drummer’s fate» (1938),
- «PBC» (1925);
- «Fourth dugout».