(biography, photos, videos) Anton Denikin
Anton Denikin: biography
Denikin, Anton Ivanovich was born on 16 December 1872, the city of Wloclawek that means in those days, the status of County town in the territory of the Warsaw province of the Russian Empire. As subsequently noted by historians, this is a future fighter against communism was much more «proletarian origin» than those who later called themselves «leaders of the proletariat.»
Ivan Efimovich, father of Anton Denikin, when he was a serf. At the time of his youth Ivan Denikin was given to the army, and for 22 years of loyal service to the Emperor, he managed to obtain the status of an officer. But this former peasant was not limited: he remained in the service and built a pretty successful military career, through which later became his son’s role model. In the resignation of Ivan Efimovich left only in 1869, the year after serving 35 years and rising to the rank of the Mallorcan.
Elizabeth Frantiskovy Wrzesinska, the mother of the future military leader, came from a family of impoverished Polish landowner, who was once a small plot of land and some peasants.
Anton Ivanovich was brought up in strict Orthodoxy and was baptized at the age of less than a month old, since his father was a deeply religious man. However, sometimes the boy attended Church with his mother, a Catholic. He grew up developed a gifted and precocious child: at the age of four was well read, well spoke not only Russian, but also Polish. Subsequently, he was not difficult to enroll in Włocławskie real school, and later on in Lowickie real school.
Although Anton’s father was in those days esteemed a retiree, Denikins family was very poor: his mother, father and the very future politician had to live in the father’s pension in the amount of 36 rubles a month. And in 1885, the year Ivan Efimovich died, and with the money Anton and his mother became very ill. Then Denikin, Jr. began tutoring and 15 years of age received monthly student content as a successful and diligent student.
The beginning of a military career
The family, as already mentioned, served to Anton Denikin source of inspiration: from a young age he wanted to build a military career (his father, born a serf and died a major). Therefore, after completion of training in Loviska school young man without a second thought about the future, successfully entered the Kiev infantry cadet school, and then in a very exclusive Imperial Nikolaev Academy of the General staff.
He served in various brigades and divisions, participated in the Russo-Japanese war, he worked in the General staff, was the commander of the seventeenth infantry Archangelsk regiment. In 1914, the year Anton Denikin received the rank of General, having entered the service in the Kiev military district, and soon thereafter rose to the rank of major-General.
Anton Ivanovich was a man closely followed the political life of his native country. He was a supporter of Russian liberalism, advocated the reform of the army, against bureaucracy. With the end of the 19th century Denikin repeatedly published his thoughts in military journals and Newspapers. The most famous series of articles «Military notes», published in the journal called «Scout».
As in the case of the Russo-Japanese war, immediately after the outbreak of the First World war Anton Ivanovich filed a report asking to appoint him in action. The fourth brigade, «Iron arrow», whose commander was Denikin, fought the most dangerous areas and have repeatedly demonstrated courage and bravery. Anton Denikin in the First World has received many awards: the order of St. George, St. George arms. In addition, during the breakthrough of enemy positions during the offensive of the southwestern front and the successful capture of Lutsk, he was promoted to Lieutenant General.
Life and career after the February revolution
During the February revolution of 1917, the year Anton Ivanovich was on the Romanian front. He supported the coup and, despite his literacy and political awareness, even believed many unflattering rumors about Nicholas II and the entire Royal family. Some time Denikin worked as a chief of staff at Michael Alexeev, who soon after the revolution, was appointed Supreme commander of the Russian army.
When Alekseev was dismissed and replaced by General Brusilov, Denikin, Anton abandoned his post and took the post of commander of the Western front. And at the end of August 1917, the year Lieutenant-General had the temerity to Express their support for the position of General Kornilov, sending a telegram to the Provisional government. Because of this, Anton Ivanovich had about a month to spend in Berdychiv prison awaiting execution.
At the end of September, Denikin and the other generals moved from Berdichev in Bykhov, where another group of detainees higher ranks of the army (including General Kornilov). In Bahovskoj prison Anton Ivanovich stayed until the 2nd December 1917, when the Bolshevik government, having attended the fall of the Provisional government, for a time forgot about the arrested generals. Shave off my beard and changed his name, surname, Denikin went to Novocherkassk.
The formation and functioning of the Volunteer army
Anton Ivanovich Denikin took an active part in creating the Volunteer army while the conflict between Kornilov and Alexeyev. He took a number of important decisions, became commander during the first and second Kuban campaigns, finally deciding that whatever was to fight against the Bolshevik power.
In the middle of 1919, Denikin’s troops so successfully fought with the enemy forces, which Anton Ivanovich even planned a trip to Moscow. However, this plan went awry: the power of the Volunteer army was undermined by the absence of a holistic program that would be attractive to ordinary people in many Russian regions, corruption in the rear, and even the transformation of part of the white armies in of robbers and bandits.
At the end of 1919 Denikin’s troops successfully won the eagle, and is located on the outskirts of Tula, thereby being more successful than most other anti-Bolshevik groups. But the days of the Volunteer army were considered: in the spring of 1920, the year the troops were pinned to the sea in Novorossiysk and, for the most part, prisoners of war. The civil war was lost, and the Denikin announced his resignation and left his native country.
After fleeing from Russia, Anton Ivanovich lived in different countries of Europe, and shortly after the end of World war II went to the USA where he died in 1947. His family: a loyal wife Ksenia Chizh, with which they have repeatedly tried to breed the fate, and the daughter of Marina took part in these journeys with him. Today has been preserved quite a lot of photos emigrated spouses and their daughter abroad, especially in Paris and other French cities. Although Denikin and wanted to had more children, his wife could no longer give birth after a very difficult first birth.
In exile the former General-Lieutenant continued to write on military and political issues. In particular, in Paris from his pen came the well-known modern specialists of «Essays on Russian troubles», not only based on the memoirs of Denikin, but also on information from official documents. A few years after that, Anton Ivanovich wrote additions and the introduction to the «Essays» — the book «the way of the Russian officer».