(biography, photos, videos) Anna Gorenko
Anna Akhmatova: a biography
One of the most bright, original and talented poets of the Silver age Anna Gorenko, better known to his fans as Akhmatova, lived a long and eventful tragic events of life. This proud and fragile, the woman was the witness of two revolutions and two world wars. Her soul burned, the repression and death of those closest to you. Biography of Anna Akhmatova worthy adaptation of the novel or that repeatedly and used both her contemporaries and later generations of playwrights, Directors and writers.
Anna Gorenko was born in the summer of 1889 in the family of hereditary nobleman and a retired engineer of the fleet Andrei Andreyevich Gorenko and Inna’s Erazmovna Stogovo, belonged to a creative elite of Odessa. The girl was born in the southern part of the city, in a house that was located near a Large Fountain. She was the third oldest of six children.
The child is barely one year old, his parents moved to St. Petersburg, where the head of the family received the rank of collegiate assessor and became an official for special assignments of the national audit office. The family settled in Tsarskoe Selo, which is associated with all childhood memories Akhmatova. The nanny took the girl to walk in the Tsarskoye Selo Park and other places that still remember Alexander Pushkin. Children were taught social etiquette. Anna learned to read the alphabet of Leo Tolstoy, and the French language learned in early childhood, listening as the teacher teaches it to older children.
Education of the future poet received at the Mariinsky women’s gymnasium. Anna Akhmatova’s poems began to write in her statement, 11. It is noteworthy that poetry for her was opened with works by Alexander Pushkin and Mikhail Lermontov, whom she fell in love with later, and the magnificent odes of Gavrila Derzhavin and Nikolai Nekrasov’s poem «frost, Red nose», recited by the mother.
Young Gorenko fell in love with Petersburg forever and considered him the main city of his life. She really missed its streets, parks and the Neva, when I had to leave with my mother in Yalta, and then in Kiev. Parents divorced when the girl was 16 years old.
Junior year she finished the house in Yalta, and the last ended in Kiev fundukleyev gymnasium. After completion of training Gorenko becomes a student at the Higher courses for women, choosing for himself the faculty of law. But if Latin and history of law caused her keen interest, the law seemed boring to yawn, so she continued her education in the beloved St. Petersburg, on historical and literary women N. P. Rayev.
The Poems Of Anna Akhmatova
In the Gorenko family poetry no one was engaged as the eye can see all around.» Only on the mother Inna Stogovo was a distant relative of Anna Bunina is a translator and poet. Father won’t approve of daughter’s hobby of poetry and asked not to disgrace his name. So Anna Akhmatova my poems never signed a real name. In his genealogical tree, she found my great-grandmother was a Tatar, who allegedly led his race from the Horde of Khan Ahmad, and thus turned into her.
In early youth, when she studied at the Mariinskaya gymnasium, she met the talented young man who later became a famous poet Nikolai Gumilev. And in Yalta and Kiev girl corresponded with him. In the spring of 1910 they were married in the Church which today stands in the village of Nikol’skaya Slobodka, near Kiev. At that time, Gumilev was already an established poet in the literary circles.
The couple went to celebrate their honeymoon in Paris. This was the first meeting of Akhmatova with Europe. After the return of the husband introduced his talented woman in the literary circles of St. Petersburg, and it was immediately noticed. Was first struck by her extraordinary beauty and Regal bearing. Dark, with a distinct hump on the nose, «Horde» appearance of Anna Akhmatova won the literary Bohemia.
Soon the St. Petersburg writers trapped by the creativity of this distinctive beauty. Anna Akhmatova love poems, and it is a great feeling, she sang all my life, writes in times of crisis symbolism. Young poets try their hand at other entered the fashion movements – futurism and Acmeism. Gumilev, Akhmatova is gaining popularity as Almeida.
1912-nd is a year of breakthrough in her biography. In this commemorative year is not only born the only son of the poet Lev Gumilyov, but comes in small quantities its first collection called «Night.» In his later years, a woman held all the hardships of the time in which she had been born to do, call these first creations of the «poor verses bare girls». But then Akhmatova’s poetry gained its first fans and brought her popularity.
After 2 years they released a collection called «Rosary». And it has been a real triumph. Supporters and critics rave about her work, raising the rank of the most fashionable poet of his time. Akhmatova no longer need protection from your husband. Her name sounds even louder than Gumilev’s name. In the revolutionary 1917, Anna releases her third book – «White pack». It goes a considerable circulation of 2 thousand copies. Couple breaks up in a turbulent 1918.
And in the summer of 1921 Nikolai Gumilev was shot. Akhmatova grieved at the death of his father, the son and the man who introduced her to the world of poetry.
From the mid-1920s for the poet a hard time. She is under the scrutiny of the NKVD. It does not print. Akhmatova’s poetry is written «on the table». Many of them lost in the shuffle. The last collection came out in 1924. «Provocative» and «decadent», «anti-Communist» poetry is the mark on creativity was worth Akhmatova expensive.
A new phase of his work is closely associated with debilitating soul experiences for the native people. First of all, for his son Lev. In the late autumn of 1935 for women sounded the first alarm call at the same time arrested the second husband, Nikolay Punin, and son. They are released in a few days, but rest in the life of the poet will be no more. From that moment she will feel like a ring of persecution around it is compressed.
After 3 years his son was arrested. He was sentenced to 5 years in labor camps. In this terrible year, stopped the marriage of Anna Andreevna and Nicholas Punina. The mother is transferring her son in the Crosses. During these years, comes the famous «Requiem» by Anna Akhmatova.
To ease the life of her son and pull him from the camps, a poet before the war, in 1940, issued the collection «From six books». Here ottsenzurenny collected old poems and new, «correct» from the standpoint of the ruling ideology.
Because the Great Patriotic war, Anna Andreevna spent in evacuation in Tashkent. Immediately after the victory returned to a free, and destroyed Leningrad. From there he soon moved to Moscow.
But parted over the head of the clouds, the son was released from the camps – again gathering. In 1946, her work is defeated at the next meeting of the writers ‘ Union, and in 1949 Lev Gumilev was arrested again. This time he was sentenced to 10 years. The poor woman is broken. She writes a petition and letters of repentance in the Politburo, but nobody hears.
After the release of the next conclusion of the relationship between mother and son for many years remained tense: Leo believed that the mother first put the creativity that is loved more than him. He moves away from her.
Black clouds over the head of this famous, but deeply unhappy woman differ only at the end of her life. In 1951 it was restored in the writers ‘ Union. Akhmatova’s poetry are printed. In the mid-1960s, Anna Andreevna receives prestigious Italian award and is releasing a new book «Running time». And even the famous poetess Oxford University assigns a doctorate.
At the end of years to a poet and a writer of world renown is finally your own house. Leningrad «literary Fund has allocated a modest wooden cottage in Komarovo. It was a tiny house, which consisted of a verandah, a corridor and one room.
All the «furniture» is a hard bed, where the feet were stacked bricks, a table, built out doors, drawing Modigliani on the wall and old icon that once belonged to her first husband.
This Regal woman had a strange power over men. In her youth Anna was incredibly flexible. They say it could easily be bent back, pulling his head to the floor. Even ballerina of the Mariinsky theatre has surprised this incredible natural plastic. And she had amazing eyes changed color. Some said that the eyes of Akhmatova grey, others claimed that the green, while others claimed that they sky blue.
Nikolai Gumilev fell in love with Anna Gorenko at first sight. But the girl was crazy about Vladimir Golenishchev-Kutuzov, a student who was not paying her any attention. Young schoolgirl suffered and even tried to hang himself on a nail. Fortunately, he slipped out of the clay walls.
It seems that the daughter had inherited her mother’s failures. Marriage with any of the three official husbands did not bring the poet happiness. Personal life of Anna Akhmatova was chaotic and some wild. She cheated, she cheated. The first man carried the love of Anna for the rest of his short life, but he had an illegitimate child that everyone knew. Besides Nikolai Gumilev did not understand why his beloved wife, in his opinion, is not a brilliant poet, is such a delight and even excitement among young people. The poems of Anna Akhmatova about love seemed to him too long and pompous.
In the end they broke up.
After parting from Anna Andreyevna, from the fans did not rebound. Count Valentin Zubov gave her armfuls of expensive roses and quivering from one of her presence, but the preference beauty gave Nicholas Nedobrovo. However, soon it was replaced by Boris Anrep.
Second marriage with Vladimir Shileiko so tired of Anna that she dropped: «Divorce… What a pleasant feeling!».
A year after the death of her first husband she is separated and with the second. And six months later married a third time. Nikolay Punin – art. But the personal life of Anna Akhmatova did not work with him.
Deputy people’s Commissar of education Lunacharsky Puning, a homeless man who sheltered her after the divorce, also did not make her happy. New wife lived in the apartment together with his ex-wife Punina and his daughter, handing over the money into a common pot of food. Came from my grandmother’s son Leo was placed overnight in a cold corridor and felt like an orphan, forever deprived of attention.
Personal life of Anna Akhmatova had to change after meeting with the doctor-pathologist Garshin, but before the wedding that supposedly had a dead mother, begging not to take home a witch. The wedding was canceled.
The death of Anna Akhmatova 5 March 1966, I think, shocked everyone. Although she at that time had turned 76 years old. Yes and it hurt long and hard. The poet died in a sanatorium near Moscow in Domodedovo. On the eve of her death, she asked to bring her a New Testament, texts which would reconcile the texts of the Qumran manuscripts.
Body Akhmatova from Moscow hastened to smuggle in Leningrad: the government did not want dissident unrest. Buried her in the Komarovsky cemetery. Before his death, the son and the mother were never able to make peace: they had not spoken in years.
On the grave of the mother of Lev Gumilev laid stone wall with a window, which was supposed to symbolize wall Crosses, where she wore his gear. Originally the grave was a wooden cross, as requested by Anna Akhmatova. But in 1969 came the cross.
The Anna Akhmatova Museum is located in St. Petersburg, Avtovskaya street. Another opened at the fountain house, where she lived for 30 years. Later, the museums, memorial plaques and bas-reliefs appeared in Moscow, Tashkent, Kiev, Odessa and many other cities where there lived a Muse.
- 1912 – «Evening»
- 1914 – «Rosary»
- 1922 – «White pack»
- 1921 – «Plantain»
- 1923 – «Anno Domini MCMXXI»
- 1940 – «From six books»
- 1943 – «Anna Akhmatova. Favorites»
- 1958 – «Anna Akhmatova. Poems»
- 1963 – «Requiem»
- 1965 – «time»