(biography, photos, videos) Andrey Gromyko
Andrei Gromyko: biography
Recently, foreign journalists have compared the current Minister of foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey Lavrov, Andrei Gromyko. What Sergey Viktorovich thanked him and replied that it was a flattering comparison, because his colleague was a great diplomat of the Soviet era». The motto of all his work in this field was «the best 10 years of negotiations than one day of war».
And foreign colleagues called Andrei Gromyko «Mr. No for intransigence and unwillingness to give up their positions in the negotiations. To this the Minister replied that «know» from foreign colleagues he has heard more often than they him «no.»
Andrey Andreevich Gromyko was born in the Belarusian village of Old Gromyko in July 1909. At that time the village belonged to the Mogilev province of the Russian Empire. Interestingly, most of the residents of the settlement had the same name, but each family was the family nickname. Family, Andrei Andreyevich called Burmakova. They came from a poor but noble family, although he Gromyko insisted on his Russian origin. But in the official biography always stated peasant origins, although his father worked in a factory.
Some historians, citing independent studies, claim that the father of Andrei Gromyko in the Wake of Stolypin’s reforms have moved to work in Canada. After a hand injury had returned home, but managed to learn English, which was a good talking to.
13 years old the son began to work. The father took him to the floating timber. He often told Andrew about his time overseas and the First world war, which was.
Except for Andrew in the family had grown by another three brothers. Two of them died in the great Patriotic war, the third died from his wounds at home.
In 1955, when Gromyko as Minister of foreign Affairs participated in the talks with the German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, he showed unprecedented firmness and intransigence. Later his son he explained his position by the fact that the feeling behind the invisible presence of the war dead brothers, who told him: «do Not let, it’s not yours, but ours.»
Successfully completing 7-notch in the Old Gromyko, Andrew went to study further. He graduated from vocational school in Gomel, and then agricultural College in Minsk region, where the active position and leadership qualities, was elected Secretary of the Komsomol organization. And at 22, he was promoted to party Secretary of the cell.
In 1931 Andrei Gromyko became a student of the Kiev economic Institute. But he studied for only 2 courses because he was sent to the village not far from Minsk as Director of the school. Institute young Director graduated in absentia.
Some of the most active young men, among whom was Andrei Gromyko, Communist party of Belarus was sent to study in the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. It was economists of a wide profile. As one of the best students in 1934 he was transferred to Moscow. Here he defended his thesis on agriculture of the US and were sent to Institute all-Union Academy of agricultural Sciences, senior researcher. During this period, Andrey Andreyevich Gromyko studied English.
In 1938, he became the scientific Secretary of the Institute of Economics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. A young and promising scientist had planned to send to the far Eastern branch of the Academy.
As contemporaries recall Andrei Gromyko, he was constantly engaged in self-education. Read the writings on the economy not only Soviet scientists, but also the memoirs of the tsarist Minister of the economy Sergei Witte, who made an indelible impression on him.
In his spare time Gromyko participated in shooting competitions and even received the icon «Voroshilov sharpshooter». He was so fascinated with the science of war, that was thinking of becoming a military pilot. But age was no longer able to enroll in aviation school.
Later in his memoirs, Andrei Gromyko said nothing about the repression of the 1930s. But the «cleansing» of the people’s Commissariat of foreign Affairs returned the fate of the young scientist’s back and brought him in the diplomatic field.
In 1939 Andrey Andreevich Gromyko was invited to the Commission of the Central Committee of the party. Her head Vyacheslav Molotov and Georgy Malenkov picked up from among the young Communists of candidates for diplomatic work. The main requirement is the proletarian origin and at least some knowledge of foreign languages. A native of Belarus approached by all criteria. At the time, he freely read in English literature was established, but it is winningly simple.
The diplomatic career of Andrei Gromyko developed rapidly. In the spring of 1939 he headed the Department of American countries NCID. But in the autumn he was summoned to Stalin, and was appointed adviser to the Soviet Embassy in America. Informal mentor, who was obliged to give to the young diplomat in the absence of knowledge, was Lieutenant-General Alexander Vasilyev, head of the Department for foreign relations of staff of the Armed forces.
From 1939 to 1943 Andrei Gromyko worked as an adviser to the Plenipotentiary representation of the USSR in the USA. And in early 1943 he was replaced by Soviet Ambassador to the U.S. Maxim Litvinov. In this position he worked until 1946. The most important event of these years was the preparation of the Tehran, Potsdam and Yalta conferences. In the famous Yalta in 1945 Gromyko participated personally.
Since 1946, within two years, the diplomat served as permanent representative of the USSR at the UN. It is noteworthy that Andrei Gromyko was the first Soviet diplomat who was entrusted with this post. In addition, from 1946 to 1949 Andrei held the position of Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs of the USSR. In the article of Time magazine one of the experts noted «high competence» Gromyko.
But in this post official made an unfortunate mistake: without permission from the Kremlin under pressure from the leadership of the state planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance he put his visa on the intergovernmental agreement with China on the value of the ruble and the yuan. For this, Stalin oversaw economic ties with the DPRK personally, the shot of Andrei Gromyko from the post of first Deputy Minister and sent him as Ambassador to London. Here the diplomat worked until the death of Joseph Stalin.
After Stalin’s death, the Ambassador returned to the USSR, and was again appointed first Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union.
In the winter of 1957, Andrei Gromyko became foreign Minister of the USSR. In this position, he was appointed by Nikita Khrushchev, after consultation with Dmitry Shepilov, who had headed this post up to this and translated to the position of Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Feature given Gromyko, Khrushchev liked: «This is bulldog: I’ll tell him – he will not release jaws until they have performed everything on time and accurately».
The post of Minister of foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union Andrei Gromyko served for an extremely long time – 28 years. To his undoubted achievement in this service include the most important and successful negotiations to control the race of conventional and nuclear weapons. On account of his resolved the Cuban missile crisis and difficult negotiations with the American President John F. Kennedy.
In 1970 the Minister of foreign Affairs of the USSR made a great contribution to the development of the text and preparation of the signing of the Moscow Treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany on «the inviolability of borders in postwar Europe.
Andrei fell to lead complex negotiations in the US and the UN, which he repeatedly flew over the ocean. And he had to cook first in the history of Soviet-American relations, the official visit of U.S. President Richard Nixon in the USSR.
First visits to Italy, too, was struck Gromyko. He had developed strained relations with this country – one of the main participating countries of Hitler coalition.
And the foreign Minister became the first Soviet statesman, met with the Pope. Their first conversation took place in new York at the UN meeting in 1965. Then Paul VI 4 times took Gromyko in the Vatican.
Contemporaries called Andrey Gromyko was a skilled diplomat. His negotiation tactics have always admired countrymen, and considerable irritation of the opposite side. The diplomat is extremely tough led the negotiations and was very uncompromising. He’s totally prepared for the meeting by studying your opponent from all sides. Studied the question so as to know the smallest details being discussed. This enabled him to dominate the less experienced conversationalist. Gromyko slowly led the conversation, the negotiations could drag on for hours. Many diplomats could not withstand long hours of grueling interviews and have handed over nerves. Only then Andrei pulled out their trump card.
After the death of Leonid Brezhnev, becoming General Secretary, Andropov and Gromyko was appointed the first Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. In this post Andrei Gromyko spent from March 1983 to July 1985. And in January of 1988, after the death of Konstantin Chernenko, colleagues in the Politburo, he was asked to take the post of General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. But Andrei was abandoned in favor of Mikhail Gorbachev, giving him a positive response for a meeting of the Politburo. According to some sources, later in an informal setting, he regretted his decision.
After the election of General Secretary Gorbachev of the CPSU, Minister of foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union took Eduard Shevardnadze. Andrei Gromyko was offered the ceremonial position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council. But in October 1988 he was released in connection with the condition.
With his wife Lydia Grinevich, the future «Patriarch diplomacy» met in 1931, when he entered the Minsk economic Institute. Lydia, as he was a student of this University.
Personal life of Andrei Gromyko and Lydia Grinevich he had a happy. It was truly an exemplary cell of the Soviet society, which was dominated by a full understanding. When her husband was sent by the Director in a rural school, his wife followed him. A year later they had a son, Anatoly. And in 1937, had a daughter Emilia.
The wife not only provided a solid background wife, but she answered him. She learned English and often led services, which have been invited wives of Western diplomats.
Spouses grandchildren – Alex and Igor. Favorite hobby Andrei Andreyevich was hunting. And he collected guns.
Andrei Gromyko died in July 1989. The death occurred from complications following a ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Although emergency surgery on prosthetics was held at the time, but the body and old heart, has not carried the load.
«The Patriarch diplomacy» wanted to be buried at the Kremlin wall, but he bequeathed to bury him in the Novodevichy cemetery.
After the death of the officer a question about the graves on red square was never raised in the Kremlin necropolis no longer buried.