(biography, photos, videos) Aleksey Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin: biography
Some historians and economists argue that on of the effectiveness of the reforms exceeded the tsarist Minister Petr Stolypin. It was called a favorite of Joseph Stalin, the gray cardinal, but the most professional and efficient head of the Soviet government. Many believe that if this person listened and helped to bring to an end conceived and initiated in the mid-1960s reforms of the industry, the Union for 10-20 years could become a truly independent country, rid it of primary industries. Moreover, people in the know say that the basis of the economy, which today is held in Russia, have created it.
And he has the record for length of stay at the head of government of the Soviet Union. After all, 16 years is a record that no one broke. With General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev have that senior officials were quite tense relations. But he suffered for excellence, not finding a decent replacement.
A brilliant political biography of Alexei Kosygin was made possible by the October revolution. After all, other opportunities to get on the imperious Olympus in a guy who was born in a family of the simple worker, under the tsarist regime simply would not have arisen.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin was born on the 21st, and the old style 8 February 1904 in St. Petersburg. About his childhood information is scanty. It is only known that the newborn son of parents baptized in the Orthodox rite in March of the same year in the Church Samson’s-strannopriimtsa.
In 15 years, Alex, at the time disciple of Petrovsky real school, sent a volunteer in the Red army. The young man was building fortifications. And after 3 years he returned to Petrograd and graduated from training. After receiving a diploma from cooperative College, a young professional moved to Siberia to develop promkooperatsia.
Existed in the period of planned economy co-operatives were a kind of oasis in which enterprise is encouraged. And their first shows as an economist Alexei Kosygin formed in this «oasis of economic freedom». He managed well to prove yourself and demonstrate the makings of a promising leader. So was sent for further training. Guy returned back to Leningrad, where he received higher education at the textile Institute.
In 1935, the career of a young specialist began a rapid upward movement. For 2 years Alex was able to «grow» from master textile factory «October» to the Director. But led the company, he is little more than a year: the success of Kosygin in this position was so striking that in 1938 he was appointed Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Leningrad Council of workers and baptizes.
The rapidity with which this man was moving up the career ladder, the unthinkable: a year later he was appointed to the post of people’s Commissar of the textile industry of the Soviet Union.
Some skeptics argue that the rapid career advancement of a young «frame» explain «the empty bench». Supposedly the Leninist-Stalinist terror «decimated» all ambitious professionals, so they had to move the young business executives who have been deprived of political ambitions. To some extent this is true: the hallmark of all the activities of Alexei Kosygin was a complete unwillingness to engage in the intrigues and infighting for power. But it is also true that he was a professional of the highest class.
Stalin did not trust many colleagues and was afraid to turn my back on them appreciated these qualities Kosygin high. This young professional is fully consistent with the criteria which, in the opinion of Joseph Stalin, should have an ideal of the Soviet Manager.
Pala the Great Patriotic war was for the 37-year-old Manager of the «examination period» where to miss he would lose hundreds, if not thousands, of lives. Alexei Kosygin in June 1941 was appointed by Stalin as the Deputy Chairman of the Council on the evacuation of industrial enterprises. The official headed a team of inspectors, who supervised the dispatch evacuation to the East more than 1,500 strategically important factories of the country. And did not disappoint.
So is it any wonder that in the winter of 1942, it had a difficult task: to provide besieged Leningrad with food and create the «Road of life» on lake Ladoga. Historians, analyzing the actions of the young Kosygin, converge on the opinion that he did everything he could.
In 1943 Alexei Nikolaevich has headed the Council of people’s Commissars of the RSFSR. The appointment was evidence of the high trust leadership.
Stalin, whose praise some waited in vain, openly favored by Kosygin. Probably, the high confidence of the Generalissimo was the reason why the axe of repression just whistled near the head of Alexei Nikolaevich. When came the «Leningrad affair», in which «the flying head» of a group suspected of separatism and other sins of party leaders, Kosygin could be among the repressed. After all, the main Kadrovik of the CPSU(b) and the Secretary of the Central Committee Alexey Kuznetsov was in a relationship with Alexei Kosygin. He was married to a cousin of his wife.
In the spring of 1946, a political biography of Alexei Kosygin continues to evolve. Now he is the Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. Soon he was appointed candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU (b).
Phenomenal memory and incredible ability to Alexei Kosygin quickly multiply in the mind of the big numbers was legendary. Stalin his is called «mastered counting machine». He was not a typical officer. Disliked flattery and avoided feasts. Its meetings were always short and dry, he quickly isolated the essence and «did not spread the idea of the tree», not allowing subordinates to do it.
When Stalin died, and not having to implement the conceived change of elites, Kosygin managed to stay in power. «The old guard» after the death of Generalissimo quickly beginning to «uproot» the young cadres, arranged by Stalin. Alexei Nikolaevich also «moved»: although he was dismissed from the post of Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and are selected by the Ministry of light industry, but does from power not excommunicated – was given a Ministerial seat modest. Now Kosygin was responsible for the production of consumer goods.
Here he distinguished himself by demonstrating a thoughtful approach to the charged business. Therefore, in the summer of 1953 Aleksey Nikolayevich headed the reorganized Ministry of industry of food products, created by the fusion of several former ministries. And in December of the same year returned to the position of Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
About how he approached his duties as a Minister, was legendary. For example, after the war, Alexei Kosygin quit Smoking. But one day he went to adopt a new tobacco factory in Georgia. During a conversation with its Director asked him to smoke. He offered him the cigarette smoke that Sam held out a pack of American manufacturing. The Minister turned around and left. The Director of the factory changed.
During the reign of Khrushchev, Kosygin increase again. In 1960 he became first Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. And after the «Palace coup» in 1964, Leonid Brezhnev, Kosygin raises to the head of the government. While Brezhnev doesn’t like too experienced Manager. And only his neomitinom and lack of desire to unseat and intrigue cause further career growth.
It is noteworthy that Alexei Kosygin-the only one of the Politburo voted against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, for which environment to Leonid Ilyich, and he was looking at him askance.
He was a brilliant diplomat, able to quickly solve various international problems. With his direct participation has allowed the Arab-Israeli conflicts 1967 and 1973. He helped to bring about the cessation of bombing by the Americans in Indochina in the early 1970s. But his victory in the diplomatic field is the solution of acute Sino-Soviet conflict. Say thanks to a brilliantly held 4-hour talks, Alexei Nikolaevich in the Beijing airport had prevented the Sino-Soviet war.
More than a successful call it economic reforms in the industry. Still referred to as the «Kosygin». The head of the Council of Ministers advocated expanding the autonomy of enterprises and the decentralization of the national economy. Thanks to him, gone such a thing as gross production, which came to an indicator of sales.
Alexei Kosygin had hard. After all, his vision of economic development significantly differed from the «Leninist principles» and even smelled of a «bourgeois» approach. Perhaps that is why the reforms of the President of the Council of Ministers met considerable resistance from officials of the old school and was not brought to its logical conclusion. But the main thing that from-for deteriorations of health failed to implement Alexei Nikolaevich is to make the main line of the budget does not export crude oil and gas and products of their processing.
Not so long ago on the Internet to do the odd version that Alexey Kosygin’s son Nicholas II. That is, he survived the Prince Alexei Nikolaevich, the heir of the Romanov dynasty. Supposedly this is why the childhood of Alexei Kosygin is a solid mystery. Those who believe in this mythical version, indicate some similarities in baby photos of Alexei Kosygin and Alexei Romanov. But nobody heard of a Soviet official was suffering from hemophilia.
This man was surprisingly unpretentious and modest. And yet – deeply honest. Freeing the post, the former VIP-the official week left state dacha and went to his rather modest apartment, taking only their personal belongings and books. Private country dacha he did not appear.
Not amassed he and untold wealth, although it could. For example, during visits to different countries he often brought gifts. If he agreed to take them, then immediately transferred to Gosgranitsa or sponsored school. For example, in the Arab countries known Soviet officials repeatedly raised swords and sabers decorated with diamonds and other precious stones. But never Kosygin left a gift to yourself.
Personal life Alexei Kosygin is his only wife Claudia Andreyevna Krivosheina. They say that this woman was respected by Stalin himself. In his company, she never felt awkward.
In 1968, Alexey became a widower: his beloved wife died may 1 when he stood on the podium of the Mausoleum. Klavdia Andreevna she sent her husband, spent the night in her room, on Red square, realizing the importance of his presence at the event.
He’s not married. And is credited with an affair with Lyudmila Zykina was only permissive gossip. Later in an interview, the driver told Kosygin that donated deceased wife and his shirt chief carried with him all trip as a mascot.
In a happy marriage Kosygin and Krivosheino daughter Ludmila, who later became Director of the Library of foreign literature and I gave my parents two grandchildren Tatiana and Alexei Gvishiani.
Today, Alexei Gvishiani Germanovich – known scientist-geoinformatik, academician of RAS, Director of Geophysical center of RAS.
Alexei Kosygin all his life loved sports and tried to engage them. Loved skiing in winter and kayaking in the summer. But after one accident when a boat capsized and Alexis barely had time to rescue, he stopped to take a risk.
In 1974 he had a minor stroke. It was the first «bell». Heart began to fail after used to the stress the body is «freed» from them. 5 years later, Kosygin was diagnosed with a massive heart attack.
In October he was released from his duties as member of the Politburo and Chairman of the Council of Ministers. He applied himself, what did many of his colleagues, the last to cling to the chair.
After a second heart attack, it became clear that the days of man are numbered. He died on the morning of 18 December 1980, on the eve of Brezhnev’s birthday. Not to overshadow the celebration of the General Secretary, the funeral was held only after 6 days, on December 24, 1980. The body of Alexei was cremated and buried near the Kremlin wall.