(biography, photos, videos) Alice Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice of Hesse-Darmstadt
Alexandra: a biography
Historians, archivists, and numerous researchers of life of the last Empress of the Russian state, seems to have studied and explained not only her actions, but every word and even every turn of the head. But what is interesting: after reading each historical monographs or the new study, we face the unfamiliar woman. Such is the magic of the beloved granddaughter of the British Queen Victoria, daughter of the Grand Duke of Hesse, the daughter of the Russian Tsar Alexander III and the spouse of Nicholas II, the last heir to the Russian throne. Alix, as they called her husband, or Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova remained a mystery to all.
Probably all because of her cold isolation and detachment from all earthly things, is taken by the entourage and the Russian nobility for his arrogance. The explanation of this strong sadness in her eyes, as if facing inward, is when you know the details of his childhood and teenage years Princess Alice Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice of Hesse-Darmstadt.
She was born in the summer of 1872 in the German city of Darmstadt. The fourth daughter of the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt Ludwig and daughter of the British Queen, Duchess, Alice, was a real sunshine. However, grandma Victoria and her name was – Sunny – Sunshine. Blond, with dimples, blue eyes, restless and flirtatious Aliki instantly charged with good mood of their starchy relatives, forcing to smile, formidable grandmother.
The little girl adored her sisters and brothers. It seems especially fun, she was together with brother Frederico and younger sister Mary, which she, because of the difficulty in pronunciation of the letter «R» called may. Frederic did not, when Aliki was 5 years old. Beloved brother died from a hemorrhage that was the result of an accident. Mother Alice, the already melancholic and sad, plunged into a severe depression.
But it is unlikely that acute painful loss beginning to erode, as there was a new disaster. And not one. An epidemic of diphtheria, which occurred in Hesse in 1878, took first solar Aliki sister may, and three weeks later mom.
So in 6 years childhood ended Aliki-Sunny. She «went out» like a ray of sunshine. Gone almost everything she loved: mother, sister, brother, familiar toys and books that are burned, replace a new one. It seems, then disappeared, and she is open and fun-loving Aliki.
To distract two granddaughters, Alice-Aliki, Ella (in Orthodoxy — Elizabeth Feodorovna), a granddaughter of Ernie from the sad thoughts, the overbearing grandmother carried them with the permission of the son-in-law in England, in the castle Osborne house on the Isle of Wight. Here Alice is under the care of his grandmother received an excellent education. Carefully selected teachers taught her sister and brother geography, mathematics, history and languages. And drawing, music, horseback riding and gardening.
Subjects were given girl easily. Alice played the piano. Music lessons he gave not to anyone, and the Director of the Darmstadt Opera. So she easily performed the most complicated works of Wagner and Schumann. But still easily mastered the intricacies of court etiquette. The only thing that upset the grandmother – the beloved Sunny was a loner, withdrawn and couldn’t stand loud secular society.
Princess of Hesse graduated from the University of Heidelberg and received the degree of bachelor of philosophy.
In March 1892, a new blow fell upon Alice. Her owner died of a heart attack the father. Now she felt even more lonely. Next was grandma, and brother Ernie inherited the crown. Only sister Ella recently lived in distant Russia. She married a Russian Prince and was called Elizabeth Feodorovna.
The Empress Alexandra Feodorovna
For the first time Alice saw Nicky at my sister’s wedding. She was then only 12 years old. The young Princess loved this well-mannered and fine young man, a mysterious Russian Prince, so different from her British and German cousins.
The second time with Nikolai Alexandrovich Romanov she met in 1889. Alice went to Russia at the invitation of the husband of the sister of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, uncle of Nicholas. A month and a half, lived in St. Petersburg Sergievsky Palace, and a meeting with Nicholas was a sufficient time in order to understand: she met her soul mate.
Their desire to unite their lives were happy only sister of Ella-Elizaveta Feodorovna and her husband. They become the communicators between the lovers, facilitating their communication and secret of correspondence.
Grandmother Victoria did not know about his personal life secretive grandchildren, had planned her marriage with his cousin Edward, Prince of Wales. An elderly woman wanted to see the beloved «the Sun» the Queen of Britain, which will give your authority.
But Aliki is in love with a distant Russian Prince, called Prince of Wales «Eddie’s cuffs» for excessive attention to his manner of dress and self-love, put Queen Victoria before the fact: will only marry Nicholas. Shows grandma’s letters finally convinced the angry woman that her granddaughter does not hold.
Not in awe of the son’s desire to marry the German Princess were the parents of crown Prince Nicholas. They were counting on the marriage of his son with Princess Louise Henriette, daughter of Louis Philippe. But the son, as his bride in distant England, persevered.
Alexander III and his wife showed up. The reason was not only the persistence of Nicholas, but the rapid deterioration of the health of the sovereign. He was dying and wanted to hand over the reins to his son, who will be arranged personal life. Alice called urgently to Russia, in the Crimea. The dying Emperor to meet a future bride as best as possible, the last effort got out of bed and dressed in uniform. The Princess, who knew about the state of health of the future father-in-law, was moved to tears.
Alix began immediately to prepare for marriage. She studied Russian language and basics of Orthodoxy. Soon converted to Christianity, and with it the name Alexandra (Feodorovna).
Emperor Alexander III died on 20 October 1894. And on October 26 the wedding of Alexandra Feodorovna and Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov. The bride from a rush of bad feeling heart sank. But the Great princes insisted on the urgency of the wedding. To maintain the decorum, the wedding ceremony was appointed on the birthday of Empress Maria Feodorovna. According to the existing canons of deviation from mourning into a day allowed. Of course, no receptions, no big celebrations were not. The wedding came with black shade.
As later in his memoirs wrote Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, «honeymoon spouses were held in an atmosphere of mourning and funeral visits. The deliberate dramatization could not invent a more appropriate prologue to the historical tragedy of the last Russian Tsar».
The second is a grim symptom, which again, the longing heart sank young ladies, occurred in may 1896 during the coronation of the Royal family. On the Khodynka field hosted the famous bloody tragedy. But the holidays were not abolished.
The young couple most of the time spent in Tsarskoe Selo. Alexandra felt good only in the company of her husband and family sister. The company has adopted the new Empress is cold and hostile. Unsmiling and closed the Empress seemed to them arrogant and smug.
To distract from unpleasant thoughts, Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova eagerly took up public Affairs and engaged in charity. Soon she had a few close friends. In fact, they were quite a bit. Is Princess Maria Bariatinsky, Countess Anastasia gendrikova and Baroness Sofia buxhoeveden. But the closest friend was Anna Vyrubova, lady-in-waiting.
Happy smile returned to the Empress, when one after another came daughters Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia. But the long-awaited birth of an heir, a son Alexei, Alexandra Feodorovna returned in a habitual state of anxiety and melancholy. My son was a terrible hereditary disease – hemophilia. It was inherited by the line of the Empress, from her grandmother Victoria.
Bleeding son, who could die from any scratch, became a regular pain Alexandra Fyodorovna and Nicholas II. At this time in the life of the Royal family appeared, the elder Grigory Rasputin. This mysterious Siberian man really helped the crown Prince: he could stop the bleeding, which was not able to do doctors.
The approach of the elders has generated a lot of rumors and gossip. Alexandra didn’t know how to get rid of them and defend. The rumor spread. Behind the ladies were whispering about her alleged undivided influence over the Emperor and public policy. About witchcraft Rasputin and his Association with Romanova.
The First world war for a long time immersed in the society in different concerns. Alexandra all means and forces gave aid to the wounded, widows of soldiers and orphaned children. The Tsarskoye Selo hospital was rebuilt as an infirmary for the wounded. The Empress herself, together with her elder sisters Olga and Tatiana trained nursing. They assisted in the operations, care for the wounded.
And in December 1916 was assassinated Grigory Rasputin. About how «loved» Alexandra Feodorovna at the court, you can judge from the surviving letters of the Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich mother-in-law of the Empress, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. He wrote that «all Russia knows that the late Rasputin and the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna – one and the same. First killed, now should disappear and the other».
As later in his memoirs wrote close friend of the Empress Anna Vyrubova, Grand Dukes and nobles in their hatred of Rasputin and the Empress themselves sawed off the branch on which he sat. Nikolai Mikhailovich, who believed that Alexandra «had to disappear» after the old man, was shot in 1919, together with three other Grand Dukes.
About the Royal family, and married life Alexandra Fyodorovna and Nicholas II is still a lot of rumors that are rooted in the distant past. Born gossip in the entourage of the monarchs. Ladies, the princes and their love to gossip wife enjoyed making up all kinds of «discrediting communications», which supposedly was convicted of the king and Queen. Think most «tried» spreading rumors Princess Zinaida Yusupova.
After the revolution came the fake, published in the memoirs of a close friend of the Empress Anna Vyrubova. The authors of this filthy libel have become very dear people: the Soviet writer A. N. Tolstoy and Professor of history P. E. Shchegolev. In these memoirs,» was said about the corrupt ties of the Empress by count A. N. Orlov, Grigori Rasputin and Vyrubova.
A similar story was in the play «the Conspiracy of the Empress», is written by two authors. The goal was clear: to discredit the Royal family, remembering which the people had to regret, and resent.
But the personal life of Alexandra Feodorovna and her beloved Nicky, however, has developed well. The couple managed to keep a warm feeling to the death. They adored their children and tenderly treated each other. This was a memory of their close friends knew about the relationship in the Royal family.
In the spring of 1917 after the Tsar’s abdication of the throne, the whole family was arrested. Alexandra Feodorovna with her husband and children were sent to Tobolsk. Soon they were moved to Ekaterinburg.
The Ipatiev house was the last place of the earthly life of the family. Alexandra knew about the terrible fate that awaits the new government her and her family. About it shortly before his death, said Grigory Rasputin, whom she believed.
The Queen with her husband and children were shot on the night of 17 July 1918.
Their remains were transported to St. Petersburg and reburied in 1998 in the Peter and Paul Cathedral, the burial vault of the Romanovs.
In 1981, Alexandra, like her whole family were canonized by the Orthodox Church abroad, and in 2000 the Russian Orthodox Church. Romanov acknowledged a victim of political repressions and rehabilitated in 2008.