Alexander The Great
(biography, photo, video) Alexander III
Alexander the great: a biography
Alexander was born in the Macedonian capital, Pella. He came from a valiant dynasty Urjadov, which, according to legend, has its origins from the famous hero Hercules. Father Alexander was the Macedonian king Philip II. Mother was Olympias, daughter of king of Epirus. Alexander was the brother of Philip III, who was declared an imbecile.
The boy grew up in an ambiguous situation: he genuinely admired valor of his father, leading an endless war with the Greek city-States, but felt a personal dislike to him, because he was under the influence of his mother, who was opposed to the son of her husband.
Training Alexander at an early age were not at home, and according to the established tradition – relatives. He studied at Mieze and teachers was Leonidas, who insisted on the Spartan way of life and actor Lysimachus, who taught the young heir to the throne of rhetoric and ethics. With 13 years he began to raise a great thinker Aristotle, who was well acquainted with his father. Aristotle, understanding that is the instructor of the future Governor, was focused on the study of politics, ethics and philosophy. Besides them, trying to give ward a classical education, the teacher taught the Prince medicine, literature, and poetics.
Alexander early showed qualities such as ambition, perseverance and dedication. On the other hand, he was totally indifferent to physical pleasure, limiting yourself to eating and for a long time showed no interest in the opposite sex.
For the first time the father entrusted to the son the office of Macedonia when he was only 16 years old. Philip went to conquer Byzantium, but this time in the homeland a rebellion, the organizer of which was the Thracian tribes. The young Prince with the help of remaining in the capital regiments crushed the revolt, and the place of the Thracian settlement founded the city of Alexandropol in his honor. After 2 years he again acted as a successful military leader, commanding the left wing of the Macedonian troops at the battle of Chaeronea.
In 336 BC king Philip was killed and Alexander proclaimed king of Macedonia.
After coming to power, Alexander destroys the enemies of his father, who was responsible for his death, and cancels the taxes. Then for 2 years he suppressed the barbarous Thracian tribes to the North of the country and restores the power of Macedonia in Greece.
After this, Alexander unites the whole of Hellas and carries a large campaign against Persia, about which dreamed all his life of Philip. It is the battle with the Persians, fully demonstrated a remarkable military talent of Alexander the great. After the battle at the river granicus in 334 BC under the rule of the Macedonians is practically all of Asia Minor. And Alexander himself obtained the glory of the greatest commander and conqueror.
Having won almost without a fight, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Carey and other countries in the Middle East, Alexander went to Egypt, where he was greeted like a new Deity. In Egypt the king establishes another city after himself – Alexandria.
After returning to Persia, Alexander conquered the Susa, Persepolis and Babylon. The latter city became the capital of the United States. In 329 the crown, the Persian king Darius was killed by his courtiers, and Alexander again shows himself as a clever tactician and strategist. He announced that in the fall of the Persian Empire guilty murderers of the king, and not conquerors, and calls himself the avenger of the honor of Darius.
Alexander becomes King of Asia, and over two years experience in Sogdian and Bactria, that is, present-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Occupying new territories, Alexander founded the city in his honor. For example, the Alexandria eschate Alexandria in Arahosia, which have been preserved to our times under the names of Khujand and Kandahar.
In 326 BC Alexander the Great made a trip to India. He managed to grab a few tribes and conquer the territory of present-day Pakistan. But after crossing the Indus river, the exhausted army went on strike and refused to move on. Alexander was forced to deploy troops back after a triumphant 10-year advanced deep into the Asian part of the Eurasian continent.
Feature of Alexander the great as a ruler was that he took the traditions and beliefs of the occupied territories, did not attempt to impose their culture and even sometimes left the governors of the former kings and rulers. Such a policy has prevented a surge of revolts of the conquered territories, but every year more and more aroused discontent among the countrymen. The same system will later be applied to the Roman emperors.
Generally the harem of Alexander the great were calculated 360-Yu concubines, of which there are Kampaspu, she was his mistress for 2 years, starting in 336 years, and older than Alexander for 7 years Barsine, who became the mother of his bastard son Hercules.
Also known for his relationship with the Queen of the Amazons, Thalestris and the Indian Princess Cleofis.
Spouse Alexander was three. The first was a Bactrian Princess Roxana, of which the king took to wife, when the bride was only 14 years old. They were married in 327. She gave birth to the only formally recognised child of the great General, the son of Alexander. After 3 years the king married at the same time, the Persian Princess, daughter of king Darius and Statira, a daughter of king Artaxerxes III Parisatide. Both of these additional marriage be deemed made solely for political reasons. However, this did not prevent the first wife Roxana smitten with jealousy and killed Statira on this basis immediately after the death of her husband.
Overall, Alexander the great was quite advanced for its time, the views on relationships with women who are very respected and considered almost equal to men, even though his teacher Aristotle insisted on the secondary role of women.
In the winter of the year 323 BC Alexander begins to plan new campaigns against the Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and the conquest of Carthage. But in less than a week before the start of the enterprise, the great commander was seriously ill, probably with malaria. Although there are versions and of the poisoning of Alexander.
For several months he could not get out of bed to his home in Babylon. From the beginning of June he denies it and catches up with a violent fever, which lasted 10 days. June 10, 323 B. E. the great king and commander Alexander the great died. At the time of his death he was only 33 years, he did not live for about a month prior to his 33th anniversary.