(biography, photos, videos) Aleksandr Nevskij
Alexander Nevsky biography
Alexander Nevsky was born in Pereslavl-Zalessky. His father Yaroslav Vsevolodovich was at the time of his son’s birth in Pereyaslavl Prince, and later Grand Prince of Kiev and Vladimir. Mother Rostislav Mstislavna — toropetskaya Princess. Alexander had an older brother Theodore, who died at the age of 13, and younger brothers Andrew, Michael, Daniel, Konstantin, Jaroslav, Athanasius, Basil, and sisters Maria and Juliana.
4-year old boy was held in the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral rite of passage for the soldiers and became a Prince. In 1230, the father put him together with his elder brother to rule in Novgorod. But after 3 years, Fedor dies, and Alexander remains the only successor of the Principality. In 1236 Yaroslav went to Kiev, then to Vladimir, and 15-year-old Prince remains alone to rule Novgorod.
The first military campaign of Alexander made with his father at Dorpat with a view to discourage it from Livonians. The battle ended with the victory of the Novgorodians. Then there was the war of Smolensk from the Lithuanians, in which victory remained with Alexander.
The main battle
15 July 1240 took place the battle of the Neva, is significant in that the army of Alexander without the support of the main army broke camp of the Swedes at the mouth of the river Izhora. But the Novgorod boyars feared the growing influence of Alexander and using various dirty tricks and gossip has ensured that he drives to Vladimir to the father. At the same time, the German army made a trip to Russia, known as the Livonian, and began to seize Pskov, izborska, vozhskaya land, took the town of kopor’ye and very close to Novgorod. Then the Novgorodians themselves began to ask the Prince to return.
In 1241 Alexander Nevsky arrived in Novgorod, and then liberated Pskov, and on April 5, 1242, occurred the famous battle of lake Peipus, known as the battle of the ice. The battle took place on the ice of the lake, and Prince Alexander has applied tactical cunning, to lure heavier opponents on a thin layer. Attacked the flanks of the Russian cavalry completed the rout. After this battle, the knights renounced all the recent gains, also to Novgorod moved and part of Latgale.
After 3 years, Alexander freed Torzhok, Toropets and Bezhetsk, captured by the army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Then exclusively by his troops, without the support of Novgorod and Vladimir, caught up and completely destroyed the remnants of the Lithuanian army, and on the way back broke another Lithuanian army under Uspacom.
In 1247 dies Yaroslav and Alexander Nevsky became the Prince of Kiev and All Russia. After the Tatar invasion of Kyiv lost its strategic importance, Alexander did not go there and stayed in Novgorod.
In 1252, the brothers Andrei and Alexander Yaroslav made against the Horde, but were defeated. Jaroslav settled in Pskov, and Andrew was forced to flee to Sweden, the Duchy of Vladimir passed to Alexander. Immediately after this began a new war with the Lithuanians and the Teutons.
Thus, Alexander Nevsky constantly fought a battle with Western troops, but bowed to the Khan of the Golden Horde. He repeatedly traveled to the Mongol Empire read ruler, were especially supportive of Batu and his allies. In 1257, even personally came to Novgorod with the Tatar ambassadors to Express support for their Empire. As opposed to Tatars exiled son of Basil in Suzdal and in its place put a 7-year-old Dmitry.
In 1259 Alexander with threats to Tatar invasion made by the Novgorod consent of the census and the tribute which they resisted for many years.
Alexander Nevsky got married in 1239, after the victory over the Lithuanians at Smolensk. His wife was the daughter of Alexandra of Polotsk Brjachislav. Young married in the Church of St. George in a hurry. A year later they had a son Vasily.
Later, the wife gave Alexander three sons – Dmitry, the future Prince of Novgorod, Pereyaslavl and Vladimir, Andrew, who will be the Kostroma, Vladimir, Novgorod and Gorodetsky Prince; and Daniel, the first Prince of Moscow. Also Alexander and Alexandra had a daughter Eudoxia, who later married Konstantin Rostislavich of Smolensk.
In 1262 Alexander Nevsky went to the Horde to try to prevent a planned Tatar invasion, provoked by the killing of tax collectors in Suzdal, Rostov, Pereyaslavl, Yaroslavl and Vladimir. In the Mongol Empire, the Prince fell ill and returned to Rus already terminally ill.
On returning home the Alexander Nevsky takes a solemn oath of Orthodox monks under the name of Alexis. Because of this act, and also because of regular failures of the Roman papacy to adopt Catholicism, the Grand Duke Alexander became a favorite Prince of the Russian clergy. Moreover, in 1543 he was Canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church among the saints and declared a Saint.
Died Alexander Nevsky November 14, 1263 and was buried in the Nativity monastery in Vladimir. But after half a Millennium, Tsar Peter I ordered to move his relics at St. Alexander Nevsky monastery in St. Petersburg.