(biography, photos, videos) Aleksandr Kolchak
Alexander Kolchak: biography
Kolchak Oleksandr Vasylyovych – an outstanding military leader and statesman of Russia, polar Explorer. During the civil war entered the historic Chronicles as the leader of the White movement. Personality assessment Kolchak is one of the most controversial and tragic pages of Russian history of the 20th century.
Alexander Kolchak was born on 16 Nov 1874 in the village of Alexandrovskoye in the suburbs of St. Petersburg in the family of hereditary nobles. Rod Kolchaks have gained the reputation in the military field, serving the Russian Empire for many centuries. His father was a hero of defence of Sevastopol during the Crimean campaign.
To 11 years received education at home. In 1885-88. Alexander studied at the 6th gymnasium of St. Petersburg, where he graduated three classes. He then entered the Naval cadet corps, where he showed excellent progress in all subjects. As the best student of scientific knowledge and behavior were enrolled in the class of cadets and was appointed Sergeant. Graduated from the Cadet Corps in 1894 with the rank of Midshipman.
From 1895 to 1899, Kolchak served in the military of the Baltic and Pacific fleets, three times circumnavigated. Has engaged in an independent study of the Pacific, more interested in its Northern territories. In 1900 capable young Lieutenant transferred to the Academy of Sciences. At this time begin to appear the first scientific work, in particular, the article about his observations of the sea currents. But the goal of the young officers are not only theoretical but also practical research – he wants to go to one of the polar expeditions.
Intrigued by its publications, the famous Arctic Explorer Baron E. W. toll offers Kolchak to take part in search of the legendary «Sannikov Land». Going in search of the missing toll it on a whaleboat from the schooner «Zarya», then dog sledding makes a risky transition and finds the remains of the lost expedition. During this dangerous trek, Kolchak caught a bad cold and miraculously survived severe pneumonia.
The Russo-Japanese war
In March 1904, just after the start of the war, not having recovered completely from the disease, Kolchak has achieved direction in the siege of Port Arthur. The destroyer «Angry» under his command participated in the establishment of the barrage mines dangerously close to the Japanese RAID. Thanks to those fighting were blown up some enemy ships.
In the last months of the siege, he commanded the coastal artillery, which has caused significant harm to the enemy. During the fighting, was wounded, and after the capture of the fortress was captured. In recognition of his fighting spirit, command the Japanese army left Kolchak weapons and freed from captivity. For heroism is awarded to:
- George arms;
- The Order Of St. Anne and St. Stanislaus.
The struggle for the reconstruction of the Navy
After treatment in hospital, Kolchak gets a six month vacation. Sincerely experiencing almost complete loss of the native fleet in the war with Japan, he is actively involved in its revival.
In June 1906, Kolchak headed a Commission in the naval General staff to ascertain the causes that led to the defeat at Tsushima. As a military expert often spoke at hearings of the State Duma with the justification to allocate the necessary funding.
His project on the realities of the Russian Navy, became the theoretical basis of the Russian military shipbuilding in the prewar period. In the framework of its implementation Kolchak in 1906-1908 he personally directs the construction of four battleships and two icebreakers.
For the invaluable contribution in the study Russian North Kolchak Lieutenant, was elected a member of the Russian geographical society. Behind him the nickname «Kolchak the polar».
At the same time Kolchak is continuing to work on the systematization of materials of previous expeditions. Published in 1909, the work on the ice cover of the Kara and Siberian seas is recognized as a new stage in the development of polar Oceanography to study the ice cover.
The first world war
The Kaiser’s command were preparing for the blitzkrieg of St. Petersburg. Henry of Prussia, commander of the German fleet expected already in the first days of the war to pass through the Gulf of Finland to the capital and to put her hurricane of fire powerful cannons.
Destroying important objects, he proposed to land troops, to capture Petersburg and to end military encroachment of Russia. The implementation of the Napoleonic plans prevented strategic experience and brilliant actions of Russian naval officers.
Given the considerable preponderance in the number of ships Germany, the initial strategy for dealing with the enemy was recognized as a mine warfare tactics. Kolchak division already during the first war days put 6 thousand mines in the Gulf of Finland. The cleverly placed mines became a reliable shield for the defence of the capital and foiled the plans of the German Navy to seize Russia.
Further Kolchak insisted on the plans to transition to more aggressive actions. In late 1914, he was made a brave operation to mining in Danzig Bay directly off the coast of the enemy. The result of this operation was blown up 35 war ships of the enemy. Successful actions of the naval commander led to his further promotion.
In September 1915 he was appointed commander of the Mine division. In early October, he made a bold maneuver on landing on the shore of the Gulf of Riga to help the troops of the Northern front. The operation was so successful that the enemy were not even aware of the presence of the Russians.
In June of 1916. Kolchak made by the Emperor to the rank of commander of the black sea fleet. Photo by the talented naval commander captured in dress uniform with all military regalia.
After the February revolution, Kolchak to the end was loyal to the Emperor. Hearing the sentence of the revolutionary sailors to surrender their weapons, he threw premium sword overboard, saying his action with the words: «Even the Japanese have not taken my weapons, I won’t give it to you!»
Arriving in Petrograd, Kolchak blamed the Ministers of the Provisional government for the collapse of their own army and country. After that threat the Admiral was actually taken in political exile at the head of the allied military mission to America.
In December 1917 he asked the British government about conscription. However, certain circles have bet on Kolchak as an authoritative leader, able to unite the liberation struggle against Bolshevism.
In the South of Russia acted in a Volunteer army in Siberia and in the East there were many disparate governments. Joining in September 1918, they created a Directory, the inconsistency of which distrusted the broad officers and the business community. They needed a «strong hand» and making the white revolution, invited Kolchak to take the title of Supreme ruler of Russia.
The purpose of the Kolchak government
Policy Kolchak was the restoration of the foundations of the Russian Empire. His decrees were banned all extremist parties. The government of Siberia wanted to achieve the reconciliation of all groups and parties, without the participation of left-wing and right-wing radicals. Was prepared by the economic reform, establishing an industrial base in Siberia.
The highest victories of the army of Kolchak managed to achieve in the spring of 1919, when she occupied the territory of Ural. However, following the success began a series of mishaps caused by a number of shortcomings:
- incompetence Kolchak problems of public administration;
- failure to resolve the agrarian question;
- guerrilla and revolutionary resistance;
- political disagreement with the allies.
In November 1919, Kolchak was forced to leave Omsk; in January 1920 gave his authority to Denikin. In the betrayal of the allied Czech corps, he was placed in the hands of the revolutionary Committee of the Bolsheviks, who seized power in Irkutsk.
The death of Admiral Kolchak
The fate of a legendary person ended tragically. The cause of death, some historians call the personal secret order. Lenin, who feared his dismissal rushing to aid troops Kappel. A. V. Kolchak was shot on 7 February 1920 in Irkutsk.
In the 21st century, the negative assessment of the personality of Kolchak revised. His name is immortalized on a plaque, monuments, in movies.
Wife of Kolchak, Sophia Omirova, hereditary noblewoman. Because of the long expedition a few years waiting for her fiancé. Their wedding was held in March 1904 in Irkutsk temple.
The marriage produced three children:
- The first daughter who was born in 1905, died in childhood.
- Son Rostislav, 9.03.1910 G.
- Daughter, Margaret, who was born in 1912, died at the age of two years.
Sophia Omirova in 1919 with British allies, along with his son emigrated to Constanta, then on to Paris. Died in 1956, buried in the Russian cemetery of the Parisians.
Son Rostislav is a member of the Bank of Algeria, took part in the battles with the Germans on the side of the French army. He died in 1965. The grandson of Kolchak Alexander, 1933 year of birth, living in Paris.
The last years of life actual wife of Kolchak was his last love Anna timireva. Familiarity with the Admiral occurred in 1915 in Helsinki, where she arrived together with her husband, a naval officer. After a divorce in 1918, followed by the Admiral. Was arrested along with Kolchak, and after his execution spent almost 30 years in different exile and prison. Was rehabilitated and died in 1975 in Moscow.
- Alexander Kolchak was baptized in Holy Trinity Church, which is known today under the name Cake and Easter.
- During one of the polar campaigns of Kolchak named the island in honor of his bride who was waiting for him in the capital. The name of the Cape of Sofia remain to our time.
- A. V. Kolchak became the fourth in the history of polar Navigator, who received the highest award of the geographical society — the Constantine medal. Before him, this honor was large, Nansen, N. Nordenskiöld, N. Jurgens.
- Card, which amounted to Kolchak, was used by Soviet sailors until the late 1950s.
- Before his death, Kolchak accepted the offer of a blindfold. Your cigarette case he gave the commander with execution to the member of the Cheka.