(biography, photos, videos) Aleksandr Solzhenitsin
Alexander Solzhenitsyn: a biography
Alexander Isaevich Solzhenitsyn, outstanding Russian writer and public figure who in the Soviet Union was declared a dissident, a threat to the Communist regime, and spent many years in prison. A well-known book by Alexander Solzhenitsyn «the Gulag Archipelago», «Matrenin Dvor», «One day of Ivan Denisovich», «Cancer ward» and many others. He was awarded the Nobel prize for literature, and was honored with this award only after eight years from the first publication, which is considered a record.
The future writer was born in late 1918, in Kislovodsk. His father, Isaac S. went through the First world war, but died before the birth of a son on the hunt. Further raising the boy was engaged in one mother, Taisiya Zakharovna. Due to the effects of the October revolution, the family was completely broke and lived in extreme poverty, although moved to more stable at the time Rostov-on-don. Problems with the new government began Solzhenitsyn’s still in Junior, as he was brought up in the traditions of religious culture, wore a crucifix and refused to join the pioneers.
But later, under the influence of any school of ideology, Aleksandr changed point of view, and even became a member of the Komsomol. In high school he was swallowed by literature: young man read the works of Russian classics, and even has plans to write his own revolutionary novel. But when it came time to choose a specialty, why Solzhenitsyn arrives at the physico-mathematical faculty of the Rostov state University. According to his confession, he was convinced that mathematicians are studying only the most intelligent people, and wanted to be one of them. University student graduated with honors, and named after Alexander Solzhenitsyn was named among the best graduates of the year.
In student’s years the young man became interested in theater, even tried to go to drama school, but to no avail. But he continued his education at the literary faculty of the Moscow University, but to finish it in time because of the explosion of the great Patriotic war. But learning the biography of Alexander Solzhenitsyn did not end there: he could not summon the ordinary because of health problems, but Solzhenitsyn is a patriot won the right to study at the officers ‘ courses at the Military Academy and a Lieutenant got into an artillery regiment. For feats in war, the future dissident was awarded the order of red Star and Patriotic war order.
The arrest and imprisonment
In the rank of captain Solzhenitsyn continued to faithfully serve the country, but was increasingly disappointed in its leader – Joseph Stalin. Such thoughts he shared in letters to a friend, Nikolai Vitkevich. And once such written dissatisfaction with Stalin, and, consequently, by Soviet standards – and the Communist system as a whole, got on the table to the head of military censorship. Alexander Solzhenitsyn was arrested, deprived of rank and sent to Moscow, «Lubyanka.» After months of interrogations of former war hero sentenced to seven years in labor camps and eternal link at the end of the sentence.
Solzhenitsyn first worked in construction and, by the way, participated in the creation of houses in the area of today’s Moscow Gagarin square. Then the state decided to use the mathematical education of the prisoner and introduced him to the special prison, which is subordinate to the private design office. But from-for quarrels with the authorities, Solzhenitsyn was transferred to strict conditions of a joint camp in Kazakhstan. There he spent more than a third of their sentences. After the release of Solzhenitsyn’s forbidden to approach the capital. He is given a job in southern Kazakhstan, where he teaches math in school.
In 1956, the case of Solzhenitsyn reconsidered and announced that it is not a crime. Now the man could return to Russia. He began to teach in Ryazan, and after the first publication of short stories focused on literary creativity. Creativity Solzhenitsyn was supported by General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, as anti-Stalinist motives were his very hands. But later, the writer has lost the location of the head of state, and with the coming to power of Leonid Brezhnev and all came under the ban.
Made matters worse the incredible popularity of the books of Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who without his permission issued in the United States and in France. The government saw a clear threat to public activity of the writer. He was offered emigration, as well as Alexander Solzhenitsyn refused, he committed the assassination: the KGB made Solzhenitsyn a shot of poison, but the writer survived, although sore afterwards. As a result, in 1974 he was accused of treason, deprived of his Soviet citizenship and expelled from the USSR.
Solzhenitsyn lived in Germany, Switzerland, USA. Literary royalties, he founded the «Russian public Fund for the aid of the persecuted and their families», were in Western Europe and North America with a lecture on the failure of the Communist system, but gradually became disillusioned in the American mode, so began to criticize and democracy. When Mikhail Gorbachev launched Perestroika in the Soviet Union has changed the attitude to the works of Solzhenitsyn. And President Boris Yeltsin persuaded the writer to return home and transferred in perpetuity a state summer residence «Sosnovka-2» in the Trinity-Lykov.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn – novels, short stories, poetry can be divided into historical and autobiographical. From the beginning of literary activities he was interested in the history of the October revolution and the First world war. This subject the writer has devoted the study «two Hundred years together», an essay «Reflections on the February revolution», the epic novel «the Red wheel», which includes made him famous in the West «August of the Fourteenth».
To autobiographical works include the poem «the Path», which is drawn by his pre-war life, the story «Zakhar-Kalita» on a Bicycle journey, a novel about a hospital «Cancer ward». The war is shown by Solzhenitsyn in the unfinished novel «Love revolution», «the Case at station Kochetovka». But the focus of the audience riveted on the work «the Gulag Archipelago» by Alexander Solzhenitsyn and other works about the repression, and imprisonment in the Soviet Union – «the first circle» and «One day of Ivan Denisovich».
Solzhenitsyn’s oeuvre is characterized by a large-scale epic scenes. He usually introduces the reader to characters who have different points of view on one problem, allowing you to make their own conclusions from the material that gives Solzhenitsyn. In most of the books by Alexander Solzhenitsyn there are really people lived, but often hidden under false names. Another characteristic of the work of the writer is his allusions to the biblical epos, or the works of Goethe and Dante.
Highly appreciated works of Solzhenitsyn are figures of art, as a storyteller Korney Chukovsky and the writer Valentin Rasputin. Poet Anna Akhmatova was allocated the story «Matrenin yard» and Director Andrei Tarkovsky’s celebrated novel «Cancer ward» by Alexander Solzhenitsyn and even personally recommended it to Nikita Khrushchev. And the President of Russia Vladimir Putin several times talked with Alexander Solzhenitsyn, respectfully noted that no matter how Solzhenitsyn treated and criticized the current government, the state has always remained the same constant.
First wife of Alexander Solzhenitsyn was Natalya Reshetovskaya, whom he met in 1936 while studying at the University. They signed the official marriage in the spring of 1940, but stayed together for long: the first war, and then the arrest of the writer not give spouses the possibility of happiness. In 1948, after repeated convictions of the NKVD Natalya Reshetovskaya divorced. However, when he was rehabilitated, they are living in Ryazan, and again married.
In August 1968, Solzhenitsyn met Natalya Svetlova, an employee of the laboratory of mathematical statistics, and they have an affair. When Solzhenitsyn’s first wife found out, she tried to commit suicide, but the ambulance managed to save her. After a few years, Solzhenitsyn was able to get an official divorce and Reshetovskaya subsequently, several times married and wrote several books about ex-husband.
But Natalia Svetlova was not only the wife of Alexander Solzhenitsyn, but his closest friend and faithful assistant on public Affairs. Together they experienced all the hardships of exile, and together they raised three sons, yermolai, Ignat and Stepan. Also the family grew Dmitry Tyurin, Natalia’s son from his first marriage. By the way, the average Solzhenitsyn’s son, Ignat, has become a very famous man. He is an outstanding pianist, chief conductor of the Chamber orchestra of Philadelphia and principal guest conductor of the Moscow Symphony orchestra.
The last years of his life, Solzhenitsyn spent at the dacha outside Moscow, presented to him by Boris Yeltsin. He is very seriously ill – affected by the consequences of prison camps and poisoned in the attack. Besides Solzhenitsyn suffered a severe hypertensive crisis and complex operation. The result is healthy he has only one arm.
Died Alexander Solzhenitsyn from congestive heart failure on August 3, 2008, did not live a few months before his 90th birthday. Buried this man, who had the unusual, but incredibly hard life, in the Donskoy cemetery in Moscow – the largest noble necropolis of the capital.
- The GULAG archipelago
- One day of Ivan Denisovich
- Cancer ward
- The first circle
- Red wheel
- The case at station Kochetovka
- Two hundred years together